Do-it-yourself water supply of a private house: the rules of arrangement and the best schemes
In order for the water supply system to provide maximum comfort to residents, it is necessary to take into account many nuances, correctly calculate all operating parameters and engineering units. It is highly advisable to begin development at the stage of an architectural project.
Realize the plans and equip the water supply of a private house with their own hands should, if not a professional, then a person who has penetrated into all the subtleties.
We will help you understand the principles of the autonomous system, designate the device of various sources of water intake and provide recommendations on the choice of equipment. The step-by-step instructions for arranging water supply are supplemented by visual images and video clips.
The content of the article:
- The principle of operation of the autonomous water supply system
- Selection of sources and water intake device
- Automatic water supply equipment
- Priority and installation scheme of the water supply network
- Conclusions and useful video on the topic
The principle of operation of the autonomous water supply system
The water supply system is one of the most important elements in home improvement. The essence of its work is the automated supply of the required volume of water, for which the user now only needs to start the equipment, and then simply periodically monitor it.
Independent of the central water supply, an autonomous network must be properly designed and designed so that the house is fully provided with water according to the needs of the owners. It is necessary to organize the system so that water freely flows to all water intake points.
For normal operation, the water supply system is equipped with devices and technical devices that provide automatic or partially automatic operation.
To automate the process use accumulator. It is used as a buffer tank for storing water and as a device for maintaining a stable pressure.
There are two compartments in the membrane tank - for air and water, they are separated by a rubber membrane. When the container is filled with water, the air chamber shrinks more and more, due to which the pressure increases.
In response to pressure increase, the electric relay switches off the pump. As soon as one of the hosts opens the tap, the pressure in the system begins to drop. The relay again responds to a decrease in pressure and turns on the pump unit to replenish the consumed water.
The use of a hydraulic accumulator in the water supply organization scheme allows not only to automate the process of water intake and to ensure its supply. The life of the pumping equipment is significantly extended due to the reduction of on / off cycles.
To choose the right system parameters, you must:
- Formulate requirements for the intensity and regularity of water supply. It is possible that in a small country house you can get by with a system with a conventional storage tank and a minimum of plumbing fixtures.
- Identify possible sources, the feasibility and cost of their construction, water quality.
- Choose equipment and calculate the options for laying utility networks.
A well-designed system requires professional installation, the use of high-quality components.
Selection of sources and water intake device
To organize the water supply system at home, groundwater is most often used, preferring aquifers protected by waterproof rocks.
The points of their fence and the location on the suburban area need not be agreed with the SES bodies if not an artesian well will be operated.The use of surface sources requires special justification.
The choice of the type of water intake structure mainly depends on the peculiarities of the geological situation of the area, the depth of the aquifers, the amount of water consumed.
Most commonly used wells and wells, less often - capttations of springs, etc. The choice of a certain water-lifting equipment depends on the construction of the structure.
Facilities for water intake of the technical category are located no closer than 20 meters from treatment systems, compost pits, street toilets of sewer pipelines, as well as other potential sources of pollution.
The site for their device is chosen not to be flooded, excluding flooding and possible infection of the source by flood waters.
The intake structure should be surrounded by a blind area of about 2 m wide, and then a clay castle with a width of 50 cm and a depth of 100 cm. Its ground part should be 80 cm high and have a cover that protects it from rain and dust.
When collecting, transporting and storing water, it is necessary to use safe materials that will not impair its quality.
Using a well to organize water supply
The choice in favor of the well is most often carried out if the water lies at a depth of twenty meters.
Wells come in two types:
- Artesian. May be depths of 100 m or more. Occasionally gush if arranged in decay. The disadvantage is the high cost of work. In addition, water can be highly mineralized, which will negatively affect the operation of the pump and plumbing fixtures.
- Shallow deepening wells (including Abyssinian). Their installation costs much less, but the disadvantage is that over time they can become silted up, especially if they are not used constantly. To raise water requires the installation of special pumping equipment.
Wells are the most common water intake facilities.
Their design may vary, but overall principle of well construction saved.
They consist of such parts:
- The mouth and aerial parts. According to the rules, the mouth is arranged in an underground chamber - a caisson. If a caisson is not used, to prevent leakage of rainwater into the well, a sealed head is constructed.
- Trunk, the walls of which are reinforced with casing pipes made of steel alloy, plastic. Occasionally, asbestos-cement pipes are used to equip artesian wells at great depths.
- Water intake partwhich has a sump and a filter.In rocks, filtering equipment may not be used.
It is recommended to make a blind area around the structure. For wells that are silted, it is advisable to equip a special place for water drainage to prevent erosion of the soil during washing of the mine.
If the place cannot be arranged, it will be necessary to rent a truck of wastewater trucks to remove water from washing.
The use of wells as a source of water
The well is constructed mainly from concrete rings, masonry, sometimes their walls are made of wood. It consists of an elevated part with a vented pipe, a trunk, a water intake and a water-holding part.
Water inside the well can enter through the bottom or walls, or simultaneously from both. If the intake goes through the bottom buried in the sand, then it is supplied with a gravel bottom filter.
When water flows through the wall, special “windows” of porous concrete are arranged, which are covered with gravel as an additional filter.
Detailed information about the organization of water supply from the well is presented in article.
The device of capturing chambers when using a spring
The device of the protective structure above the spring differs little from the design of the well. In them, water can also enter through the bottom or walls, which are equipped with filters. In rocks, no filtration is required.
If suspended particles are present in the water, then the chamber is divided in half by a partition, one compartment serves for settling and cleaning of sediment, and the other for water intake.
To exit excess water at the largest debit of the source, an overflow pipe is provided in the chamber wall. At its end, a valve is installed that allows water to pass through, but prevents debris and rodents from entering the spring.
Automatic water supply equipment
The choice of the method of arrangement and installation of the water supply system of a country house begins with an assessment of the type of water intake structure, its depth and other characteristics.
Automated system includes:
- pump or finished pumping station;
- filtration system for water treatment;
- cumulative and regulatory capacity;
- external and internal pipeline;
- devices for automatic regulation.
When installing containers and pumps, it is necessary to strictly comply with the requirements of the equipment manufacturers.
Regulating and storage tanks for water
Water storage tanks are distinguished by the principle of operation:
- Pressureless leaky tank. It is made mainly of polymeric materials. Helps create pressure through placement at the highest point of the system. The higher the storage tank is installed, the greater the water pressure will be in the system. Raising the tank per meter increases the pressure by 0.1 atmosphere.
- Hydropneumatic tank. Inside, it is divided into two compartments by a membrane. It creates pressure due to compressed air in one compartment, which, through a rubber membrane, exerts pressure on the water in the adjacent compartment.
A pressureless tank is installed in a lit ventilated room, the temperature of which does not fall to negative values. Pallets are installed under the container to protect against small leaks. The tank is equipped with a removable lid and equipped with shutoff valves.
One of the characteristics of the operation of pumping equipment is the frequency of the system on per unit of time. This indicator is fundamental in choosing a hydraulic accumulator. In submersible pumps, the allowable interval between starts is longer than in surface pumps. They should be turned on less frequently, which means that the hydraulic tank should be larger.
To work in tandem with surface pumps, membrane tanks are most often purchased with a capacity of 12 to 24 liters. If there are interruptions in electricity in the village, it is recommended to install a hydraulic accumulator of 250 liters or more so that you can pump and store a reserve supply of water for some time.
Hydraulic accumulators are placed in chambers underground, in basements, utility rooms, in which the temperature does not drop below zero.
Purification of tap water from impurities
Way water purification selected by the results of its analysis. After analyzing them and identifying the most acute problems, they give preference to a particular device.
For example, if rust removal is necessary, then filtering is used through special replaceable filter cartridges. Decontaminants also remove the smell of hydrogen sulfide and manganese.
With the removal of fluoride from the water, a reverse osmotic filter, which is used to prepare drinking water in the kitchen, will help.
For a more thorough cleaning, a special water treatment station can be used. If stiffness is to be reduced, softeners are used. When using well water, it is recommended to use an ultraviolet disinfectant.
Types of pumping equipment and selection features
For autonomous water supply, various types of pumps can be used: submersible, vortex, cantilever, cantilever monoblock, as well as equipped pumping stations.
When choosing a water-lifting equipment take into account:
- Source debit. It should exceed the water consumption in the house.
- Type of water intake and aquifer depth. For pumping from sources up to 8 m deep, surface centrifugal pumps are used. They are placed in the basement or separate rooms of private houses, in underground chambers or mine wells. Water is pumped from great depths through powerful submersible pumps.
- The required pressure in the system. The pressure of the pump installation is determined by summing up the values (in meters): the height of the lift from the level of (dynamic) water in the well to the highest plumbing fixture, the pressure loss at the highest point, the necessary pressure at this point.
- Estimated Water Consumption. Calculate based on the number of plumbing points and the number of residents. This indicator affects the choice of equipment performance.
Are provided submersible pump models for installation in both deep and shallow wells and wells. They come in different capacities and diameters. Surface pumps are characterized by less pressure, so they are used for shallow sources - wells and springs.
The manufacturer often equips such devices with pressure tanks and automation, then sells them as ready-made pumping stations.
It is advisable that any pumping equipment be equipped with protection against running without water - this will prevent it from overheating and breakage if the level in the source decreases or the pipeline is damaged.
Separately, it should be said about ejector - a device that facilitates the operation of the pump when taking water from a great depth and / or increases the pressure. It is installed inside or outside the pump, allows you to increase its power and spend less energy on pumping water.
Control and adjustment devices
A pressure gauge is used to control water pressure. It must be accurate, because even a slight discrepancy in performance will lead to incorrect equipment settings. You can use devices designed for installation in the car.
For disconnecting and starting the device is responsible pressure switch. In addition, it effectively protects the system from the formation of excess pressure, regulates the frequency of the pump and increases its service life.
When connecting the relay for the first time, most likely it will not have to be regulated, the factory settings are already set in it. But at the slightest deviations in the operation of the equipment, the relay must be checked and tuned one of the first.
Priority and installation scheme of the water supply network
Like all work with engineering systems, the water supply device of a private house must be performed in a certain sequence.
Having equipped first of all the water source, the installation is carried out:
- external and internal pipeline;
- pumping and additional equipment;
- water purification filters;
- distribution manifold;
- hot water device.
The final step is to connect plumbing fixtures.
Step 1. Installation of pumping equipment
The installation method for water systems with submersible and surface pumps is slightly different. Surface centrifugal pumps (pumping stations) are placed in an insulated outdoor branch or in the basement of a house, pit, etc.
The submersible pump is connected to the hose and the power cable, lowered into water and suspended on a nylon cable, usually included in the package of the unit.
Installation of a submersible pump is performed in the following order:
- Before lowering the pump, measure the hose and cable. Between them they are connected with plastic clamps every 4 m and connected to the pump.
- Holding the cable (you can not hold the pump on a hose or cable), lower the pump to a predetermined depth, securely fixed. The permissible distance to the bottom is indicated by the model manufacturer.
- A head is attached over the casing. The hose and electric cable are led out through the central hole, and the cable is tied. Finally, tighten the bolts to seal the structure.
The next step is laying and installing the supply pipe.
Step 2. Installation of the external pipeline
For laying an external water supply network, polyethylene - PE (or HDPE), metal-plastic pipes are most often used. The latter is stronger, but bends worse. Much less often, steel without zinc coating or galvanized, with anti-corrosion treatment is used.
The pipeline must be laid half a meter lower than the freezing level. For less deep installation use insulation. Connect the pipes with collet fittings without fum tape and other seals.
Pipe installation is carried out as follows:
- They dig a wide trench to the depth of freezing and plus a half meter;
- At the bottom, a pillow is made of rammed quarry or river sand;
- Align the bottom with a slope of 2-3 cm per meter;
- They insulate a section of the water supply system laid above the depth of seasonal freezing before entering the foundation of the house;
- Lay the pipe and fill it with clean sand without clay inclusions.
When laying pipes, it is better to avoid connections and not use fittings, otherwise the maintainability of the entire pipeline is impaired. If you still need to make a branch underground, it is better to use fittings for welding. The result is a soldered monolithic connection without thread.
Also allowed device summer water supply for watering, providing premises intended for summer use. Such a pipeline is sometimes laid on top of the earth.
If the summer water supply system is buried, then it is possible to drain for conservation for the cold season. To do this, a standard bias towards the source of water intake is arranged.
Some types of pipes need to be hidden from sunlight and exposure to freezing temperatures. Therefore, even for temporary summer operation of the water pipes made of them, it is better to lay underground.
Step 3. Installation of the internal section of the water supply
The layout and installation of the internal water supply network for different dwellings can vary greatly.Based on the individual layout and zoning of the house, its number of storeys and the number of plumbing, an individual scheme is drawn up for the water supply of a private house.
In general, the sequence of actions can be described as follows:
- By pre-applied markings, brackets are fixed to fix the pipes. If concealed installation is supposed, then the walls will be first dashed, and then the fasteners are already installed.
- At the entrance of the pipe into the building, a ball valve is installed.
- A collector is mounted, pipes are connected to it, dividing them into several circuits.
- Metal-plastic pipes connect the press with fittings, polyethylene and polypropylene pipes by welding.
Before closing the strobes, they check the system's operability. Inspect the quality of the pipe connection, evaluate the operation of the pump and regulatory automation.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Important nuances of the water supply in the house. Expert Advice:
Stage-by-stage technology of laying an external pipeline on a segment from the foundation of the house to the well:
An overview of the elements of an autonomous water supply system, types of pumps and wiring diagrams:
When designing a water supply system, it must be borne in mind that the more complex it is, the more comfortable it is to use. But a simple system is more reliable, less likely to fail, and is available for own repair.
Therefore, making a diagram, it is important not to overestimate your strength and determine the most important functions that a water supply system should perform.
Do you have practical skills in organizing water supply for your home? Please share your knowledge or ask questions about the topic of publication in the comments. The contact form is located below.