Water pressure in the water supply: what should be and how to increase if necessary
For the smooth functioning of plumbing fixtures, it is necessary that the water pressure in the water supply system corresponds to a certain indicator, which is usually calculated individually.
But correct calculations do not guarantee that in practice the water pressure will be optimal. Owners of country houses most often face the problem of low pressure in the pipes. It is possible to solve it by introducing equipment.
We offer to understand what are the pressure standards in the water supply of a private house and for what reasons there is a decrease in pressure. We will offer effective methods to increase the efficiency of water supply. We supplemented the material with detailed photo instructions and videos.
The content of the article:
Pressure standards in the pipeline
Water pressure is measured in bars. The value has an alternative name - atmospheric unit. Under a pressure of 1 bar, water can rise to a height of 10 m.
AT city networks usually the pressure is 4-4.5 bar, which is enough to service multi-story buildings.
According to regulatory documents, in particular, the guidelines of SNiP 2.0401-85, permissible pressure for cold water varies from 0.3 to 6 bar, for hot - from 0.3 to 4.5. But it does not follow from this that a pressure of 0.3 atmospheres will be optimal. Only the permissible pressure limits are shown here.
Residents of private houses are forced to calculate the pressure in the water supply individually. In case the system is autonomous, the pressure may exceed the permissible limits according to regulatory documents. It can fluctuate around 2.5-7.5 bar, and sometimes reach 10 bar.
Standard values for normal operation of the system with pumping station The interval 1.4 - 2.8 bar is considered, corresponding to the factory setting of the pressure switch.
If you provide an excessively high pressure in the system, then some sensitive devices may fail or malfunction. Therefore, the pressure in the pipeline should not exceed 6.5 bar.
Gushing artesian wells are able to give a pressure of 10 bar. Only welded joints are able to withstand such pressure, most of the fittings, locking and regulating units under its action are destroyed, resulting in leaks in the areas.
To determine what water pressure is necessary for the normal functionality of the water supply of a country house, it is necessary taking into account the household appliances used. Some types of plumbing devices do not work at low pressure.
For example, a pressure of 4 bars is required for a jacuzzi, 1.5 bars for a shower, fire extinguishing system, and 2 bars for a washing machine. If the lawn should be irrigated, then there should be a strong pressure of 4, sometimes 6 bar.
The optimal pressure indicator for a country house will be a mark of 4 bar. This pressure is enough for the proper operation of all plumbing devices. At the same time, most fittings, components of shut-off and control valves are able to withstand it.
Not every system can provide a pressure of 4 bar. Typically, for country houses, the pressure in the water supply is 1-1.5 bar, which corresponds to gravity.
The reasons for the low pressure in the water supply
If the system is completely autonomous, then to create the desired pressure you need to consider two points:
- the need to ensure water rise;
- It is important to make a correct hydraulic calculation and correctly implement it in practice - to provide the necessary pressure at points and points located at different heights that are remote from the catchment.
This leads to two main problems of individual water supply systems:
- Not enough well resources - the flow rate of the hole does not allow to maintain normal pressure, and, therefore, increase the pressure.
- There is a lot of water in the wellTherefore, pumps can pump high pressure (up to 6 bar), which can lead to rupture of joints, leaks, rapid wear of equipment.
In the first case, the pumps pump the liquid, creating its circulation until a certain pressure occurs, however, with time it weakens. In the second case, you need to choose a pump with a capacity that is equal to the daily rate of water consumption.
Nevertheless, most owners of private homes are concerned about how to properly increase the pressure in their own water supply, and not lower it, because only a few artesian wells have the required flow rate to create high pressure.
Most of the holes generate a weak pressure of water, or even not at all capable of producing any pressure.
If standard household appliances are used in the house, then it is enough to raise the pressure to 2.3-2.5 bar - this wave is enough for their uninterrupted simultaneous functioning with good pressure. If a jacuzzi or irrigation system is provided, higher pressure is required here.
A pressure gauge is used to measure pressure. It is bought separately and built at the point of entry of water into the house. A water meter is also installed there. Some equipment comes with a pressure gauge. For example, a heating boiler, if FGP is provided.
A simple pressure gauge has a scale from 0 to 7, which allows you to install it in an apartment, a private house.
Methods of increasing the pressure in the system
If the pressure in the water supply is low, then the reason may be as follows:
- There is water in the pipeline, but there is no pressure.
- There is no water in the pipeline on the upper floors.
To solve the first problem, it is necessary to introduce into the system pressure boosting pump, to solve the second - to establish a storage station.
Before introducing technical means into the water supply system, you should first check the network for clogging:
# 1: Introducing a pump to increase pressure
If water is present in the pipeline, but there is no pressure, then an injection pump is installed. Also, the device can be implemented if there is no pressure in the apartment with central heating.
The reason for the lack of pressure may be as follows:
- the well is located remotely at home;
- the power of the base pump is not enough to provide water to the upper floors.
The pump is usually mounted at the entrance to the home piping network in front of the manifold or first tee.
There is one drawback of central pumps - they create a vacuum, that is, they can pump water saturated with air. A conventional centrifugal discharge pump is sensitive to the air content in the liquid, so vibration modifications should be preferred.
To install the device in an apartment building, it is important to choose a modification of the correct capacity, otherwise the owner of the “pumped” water supply will lower the pressure in neighboring apartments. It is recommended that the pump be placed on a pipe leading to a specific appliance.
In general, a pump is driven into a common pipe, which is responsible for supplying water to an apartment or house. The device itself is quite compact and inexpensive.
# 2: The main types of pressure pumps
There are models with dry and wet rotor (flow). The wet rotor pump elements lubricate the passing fluid. Devices of this class do not require additional maintenance, if initially they are connected correctly.
A pump with a dry rotor has good power, but it needs regular maintenance, produces quiet sounds during operation, reminiscent of a squeak of a mosquito. Its parts are fenced with a waterproof shutter, so you have to clean the device once a month.
According to the type of work, pumps are divided into the following types:
- manual pressure boosting pump and having manual control. The model is constantly working, it does not have automatic switches. The device has a simple design, understandable for ordinary inhabitants; most often the device is used in “warm floor” systems;
- automatic pump - it starts only when the crane or household appliances are turned on. After closing, it is disabled.
An automatic pump is more expensive than a manual pump, it consumes a little energy, quickly responds to changes in pressure, and today it is the most popular.
Choosing a charge pump is pretty simple.
It is important to determine the following:
- the device will be installed on hot or cold water;
- necessary pressure level - the higher the indicator, the greater the pressure in the system.
Accordingly, the higher the pressure, the more the power and throughput of the equipment is needed.
It is equally important to choose a pressure pump, taking into account the brand, because in the event of a breakdown, not every repair service will undertake to tidy up the production model of an unknown company. The most famous and recognized manufacturers - Grundfos, Wilo, Sprut. Each company specializes in producing various modifications of the device.
For instance, Grundfos produces small circulation pumps Wilo Develop models with a built-in hydraulic accumulator.
To connect the circulation pump, you need to:
- Block the water in the area.
- Release water from the pipeline and the system as a whole.
- Cut off the part of the pipe in which the installation will be carried out.
- Attach fittings and nozzles to the joints.
- Embed equipment in the water supply.
It is also permissible to use a polypropylene or rubber hose to simplify installation.In modern circulation pumps, such pipes are included.
# 3: Booster tank pressure increase
When the pipelines in the house are without water, or if water is present on the lower floor and does not reach the upper floors, it is necessary to purchase a storage pump station. It is also introduced into the system when the network pressure is less than 0.2 bar and the flow rate is less than 2 l / m.
The principle of her work is as follows. The pump pumps liquid into the station (tank or accumulator), which operates at a pressure of 1.5-2 bar. Water flows until a pressure of 1.5 or 2 bars appears in the tank. If the station is equipped accumulator, then the created pressure can be an order of magnitude higher.
After generating the necessary pressure, the pumping station shuts off automatically.
Special pressure sensors have been introduced into the design of the storage station. When the pressure drops to 1.5 bar, the main pump turns on, when it increases to a certain point, it turns off.
The pump in the station can be one of two types - centrifugal or vibrating.
According to the type of absorption, they distinguish:
- removable ejector designs - able to generate pressure of 5 bar. The ejector is immersed in the well, and the tank itself can be located at home, since it practically does not make noise during operation. The station is mainly used in cases where the water source is deep, and its drawback is sensitivity to mechanical elements - sand, dirt, etc.
- equipment with integrated ejector - suitable for shallow (up to 8 meters) wells and wells, works effectively in dirty water, is not sensitive to air ingress, but has a high noise level, therefore it is usually installed in special extensions.
Models with a storage tank are economical (the launch occurs when the tank is empty), but have many drawbacks: they generate a small pressure, have large dimensions, there is a risk of rupture, as a result of which the room can flood.
Stations with a storage tank are practically not used today. To replace them came models with a hydraulic accumulator. They are small in size, do not make noise during work.
You can install the device in the basement, utility room, separate annex. At the same time, the risk of leaks is minimized. But the accumulator has a small reserve of capacity (about 25 l) and it is not used for wells with low flow rates.
Stations are also divided into surface (when the pump is located on the ground) and submersible (the device is immersed in water), the latter are conditionally divided into well and borehole.
To increase the level of water pressure in the apartment pipeline, pumping stations are not used due to design features and noise during operation.
Despite its impressive cost, the pumping station has a number of undeniable advantages:
- it is possible to set any desired pressure in the house, which will allow the use of any plumbing fixtures, including those that require high pressure to function;
- water supply will be uninterrupted even if it is absent in the central highway (due to the presence of the storage tank).
The system has flaws - it is bulky, takes up a lot of space.
It is important to correctly determine the amount of storage capacity. Take this value taking into account the average daily rate of water consumption.If the family consists of 3-4 people, then about 500 liters of water will suffice per day.
When calculating, it is also important to consider that water needs to be updated from time to time to avoid bacteria.
It is important to clean the storage tank in a timely and regular manner, since pathogenic bacteria accumulate in it. Small bags with technical silver placed inside the tank prevent their reproduction.
It should be remembered that there should be no stop valves on the overflow pipe. If the float valve fails, then water will drain through it.
It is also necessary to install a bypass, so that in case of a plant breakdown, it is possible to turn off the system without completely shutting off the water supply.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Movie number 1. How to choose a power station. In the video you can find out about the features of choosing a power station with a hydraulic accumulator:
Movie number 2. The video describes the main points when installing the discharge pump:
As you can see, it is not difficult to raise the pressure in the water supply. To solve the problem, a pressure pump or a special pumping station is used. If the pump can be installed on its own, then professionals should entrust the installation of the station.
Do you have personal experience in improving the pressure in the water supply? Want to share effective methods or ask questions about the topic? Please leave comments - the feedback form is located below.