Adjustment of the pumping station: rules and algorithm for setting up the equipment
For a stable supply of water with the required pressure values, it is not enough just to buy a pump station. The equipment must also be set up, started up and properly operated. Admit, not all of us are familiar with the intricacies of tuning. And the prospect of spoiling the devices with incorrect actions is not too attractive, agree?
We are ready to share with you valuable information on how to adjust the pumping station. In our article, methods and rules for eliminating work irregularities associated with insufficiently high pressure are given.
You will learn about the causes of the pressure drop and get acquainted with the methods to eliminate them. Graphic and photo applications will explain how to properly configure pumping equipment.
The content of the article:
- Features of the pump station
- Causes of hardware problems
- Error correction in work
- Revision of the storage tank
- Using a relay to adjust pressure
- Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Features of the pump station
A ready-made pump station equipped by the manufacturer is a mechanism for forced water supply. The scheme of its work to the limit is simple.
The pump pumps water into an elastic tank located inside the accumulator, also called the hydraulic tank. When filled with water, it stretches and presses on that part of the hydraulic tank that is filled with air or gas. Pressure, reaching a certain level, causes the pump to turn off.
During the intake of water, the pressure in the system drops, and at a certain moment, when the values set by the owner are reached, the pump starts working again. The relay is responsible for turning the device off and on, the pressure level is controlled by a pressure gauge.
More details with the principle of operation, varieties and field-proven installation schemes pumping station will familiarize us with the article recommended by us.
Causes of hardware problems
The statistics of malfunctions in the operation of household pumping stations says that most often problems arise due to a violation of the integrity of the membrane accumulator, piping, water or air leakage, and also due to various contaminants in the system.
The need for intervention in its work can arise due to many reasons:
- Sand and various substances dissolved in water can cause corrosion, lead to malfunctions and reduce the performance of equipment. To prevent clogging of the device, water purifying filters must be used.
- A decrease in air pressure in the station causes frequent pump operation and premature wear. It is recommended that you measure the air pressure from time to time and adjust it if necessary.
- The lack of tightness of the joints of the suction pipe is the reason that the engine runs without shutting down, but cannot pump the liquid.
- Incorrect adjustment of the pressure of the pumping station can also cause inconvenience and even breakdowns in the system.
To extend the life of the station, it is recommended to periodically conduct an audit. Any adjustment work must be started by disconnecting from the mains and draining the water.
Error correction in work
Before starting a more serious intervention in the operation of the equipment, it is necessary to take the simplest measures - clean the filters, eliminate leaks. If they do not give results, then proceed to further steps, trying to identify the root cause.
The next thing to do is adjust the pressure in the accumulator tank and adjust pressure switch.
Below are the most common disturbances in the operation of a household pumping station, which the user can try to solve on their own. For more serious problems, you must contact the service center.
Violation of the operating rules
If the station is continuously working without shutting down, the probable cause is incorrect adjustment of the relay - a high shutdown pressure is set. It also happens that the engine is running, but the station does not pump water.
The reason may lie in the following:
- At first start-up, the pump was not filled with water. It is necessary to correct the situation by pouring water through a special funnel.
- The integrity of the pipe is broken or an air plug has formed in the pipe or in the suction valve. To detect a specific reason, it is necessary to make sure that: the inlet valve and all connections are tight, there are no bends, contractions, hydraulic locks along the entire length of the suction pipe. All malfunctions are eliminated, if necessary, replace damaged areas.
- The equipment works without access to water (dry). It is necessary to check why it is not there or to identify and eliminate other causes.
- Pipeline clogged - it is necessary to clean the system from contamination.
It happens that the station very often triggers and turns off. Most likely this is due to a damaged membrane (then it is necessary to replace it), or the system is missing pressure required for work. In the latter case, it is necessary to measure the presence of air, check the tank for cracks and damage.
Less likely, but it may happen that it is open and locked. check valve due to the entry of debris or a foreign object. In such a situation, it is necessary to disassemble the pipeline in the area of possible clogging and eliminate the problem.
The engine of the household station does not work and does not make noise, possibly for the following reasons:
- The equipment is disconnected from the power supply or there is no mains voltage. It is necessary to check the wiring diagram.
- Blown fuse. In this case, you need to replace the item.
- If it is not possible to turn the fan wheel, it means it is jammed. Find out why.
- The relay is damaged. You need to try to adjust it or, if it fails, replace it with a new one.
Malfunctions in the engine most often force the user to use the services of a service center.
Problems with water pressure in the system
The insufficient water pressure in the system can be explained by several reasons:
- The water or air pressure in the system is set to an unacceptably low value. Then it is necessary to configure the relay in accordance with the recommended parameters.
- The piping or impeller of the pump is blocked. Cleaning the elements of the pumping station from contamination may help to solve the problem.
- Air enters the pipeline. Checking the elements of the pipeline and their connections for leaks can confirm or deny this version.
Poor water supply is also due to the fact that air is drawn in due to loose connections of the water pipes or the water level has fallen so much that air is pumped into the system when it is drawn in.
Revision of the storage tank
Starting work on adjusting the equipment, disconnect the system from the network, close the pressure valve on the water intake side. Unscrew the tap and drain the water, and the residues are lowered through the pressure hose, disconnecting it from membrane tank. First check the air pressure in the tank of the accumulator.
The role of the accumulator in the system
The membrane tank of the pumping station is, in fact, a metal tank with a rubber bulb located inside, which is designed to collect water.
Air is pumped into the free space between the rubber bulb and the tank walls. In some models of hydraulic accumulators, the tank is divided in half by a membrane, which delimits the tank into two compartments - for water and air.
The more water enters the device, the more it compresses the air, increasing its pressure, which tends to push the water out of the tank. This allows you to maintain a stable pressure of water even during inactivity of the pump.
The hydraulic accumulator requires regular maintenance, removal of air from the pear, which enters it together with water in the form of small bubbles and gradually accumulates there, reducing the usable volume.
For this, a special valve is provided on top of large tanks. With small containers, you have to trick in order to remove air: turn off the system and drain and fill the tank several times.
Air pressure control
Although the manufacturer adjusts all the elements of the pumping station at the production stage, it is necessary to double-check the pressure even in new equipment, since at the time of sale it may slightly decrease. The device that is being operated is inspected up to two times per year.
For measurements, the most accurate pressure gauge is used, because even a small error of 0.5 bar can affect the operation of the equipment. If it is possible to use a car gauge, with a scale, with the lowest graduation, this will provide more reliable results.
The air pressure indicator in the diaphragm tank must correspond to 0.9 times the switching pressure of the pump station (set using a relay). For tanks with different volumes, the indicator can be from one to two bars. The adjustment is carried out through the nipple, pumping or bleeding excess air.
For normal operation, the station is equipped with mandatory control and regulatory devices:
The less air is pumped into the system, the more water it can accumulate. The water pressure will be strong when the tank is full, and more and more weaken when the water is drawn.
If such differences are comfortable for the consumer, then you can leave the pressure at the lowest acceptable level, but not less than 1 bar.A lower value can cause friction of the pear filled with water against the tank wall and damage it.
To install in water supply system strong water pressure, it is necessary to fix the air pressure within about 1.5 bar. So, the difference in pressure with a filled and empty tank will be less noticeable, providing an even and strong flow of water.
Using a relay to adjust pressure
Responsible for the automation of the system pressure switch - a device that controls the pumping station, performing the function of turning on and off the device. It also prevents the system from creating excessive pressure.
# 1: Principle of operation of the pressure sensor
The main element of the relay is a group of contacts, which is mounted on a metal base and is responsible for turning the device on and off.
Nearby are two springs of different sizes to adjust the pressure inside the system. From below, a membrane cover is attached to the metal base, under which the membrane itself and the metal piston are placed. From above everything is closed with a plastic cap.
In the process of operating the current device, several stages can be distinguished:
- When the tap is turned on, water for some time enters the plumbing point from the filled tank. In this case, the pressure present in the system gradually begins to drop, and the membrane ceases to press on the piston. The contact closes, the pump turns on.
- The pump works by pumping water to the consumer, and when all the taps are turned off, it fills the tank with water.
- When the accumulator tank is gradually filled, pressure increases, and it begins to act on the membrane, and it presses on the piston. As a result, the contacts open and the pump stops.
The frequency of switching on the station, the pressure of the water, and even the service life of the equipment depend on how the relay is configured. If the parameters are set incorrectly, the pump will not work at all or will run continuously.
# 2: Adjustment and calculation of the required pressure
The new device already has the factory settings of the relay, but, nevertheless, it is better to additionally check them. Before setting up, it is necessary to find out the values recommended by the manufacturer for setting the permissible pressure threshold (for closing and opening contacts).
When pump station breakdown, due to improper adjustment, the manufacturer has the full right to refuse its warranty.
The calculation of the permissible pressure, when turning on / off the device, the manufacturer carries out taking into account the expected features of operation. They are taken into account in the development of operating parameters for different models of pumping stations.
The inclusion value is equal to the sum:
- The required pressure at the highest point in the water supply system where water is taken;
- Differences between the height of the highest point of water withdrawal and the pump;
- Losses in the water pressure pipeline.
The shutdown rate is calculated as follows: plus one and take one and a half bar to the shutdown pressure. At the same time, it must not be allowed for the shutdown pressure to exceed the maximum permissible pressure that occurs at the pipeline outlet from the pump.
# 3: Setting Recommended Settings
Before changing the settings, it is necessary to fix the previous indicators using a manometer. Turning on the pump, record the pressure values at the time of switching off and on. This will help determine which direction to adjust - towards decreasing or increasing.
Further actions have the following priority:
- Disconnect the station from power, drain the water and open the relay cover with a wrench.
- The pump start pressure is controlled by rotating the nut that holds the large spring (P). Twisting it in the clockwise direction, they achieve compression of the spring and set the required switching pressure. In various models of the device, permissible values can range from 1.1 to 2.2 bar.
- By turning the small nut (∆P) in the clockwise direction, you can increase the gap between the shut-off pressure and the turn-on pressure of the device, which is usually 1 bar. Thus, the switch-off pressure can be fixed at values in the range from 2.2 bar to 3.3 bar.
An important nuance is that a small spring does not regulate the trip threshold, as some people mistakenly understand.
It sets the delta between the values of the inclusion of the station, and its shutdown. That is, a fully weakened spring will not make a difference - the delta will be zero and the on and off values will be the same. But the more it is delayed, the greater the difference between them will be.
Check the correctness of the set indicators using a manometer. If it was not possible to achieve the required values on the first attempt, adjustment continues.
# 4: Select non-standard pressure values
You can set a different pressure level in the device, different from the manufacturer’s recommendations, adjusting the equipment to individual user requirements. By increasing the range when turning on / off, they achieve more rare station responses.
This makes the service of the device longer, but makes the water pressure uneven. By reducing the difference, they achieve a stable pressure, but this way the pump will operate more often.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
How to adjust the station pressure, video demonstrates:
Video on what to do if the station often triggers:
Carrying out an independent adjustment of the pumping station, it must be borne in mind that sometimes changes in the factory recommendations can worsen the operation of the water supply system. Pump, hoses, plumbing fixtures - all have pressure limits, the violation of which will lead to breakdowns. Therefore, before embarking on independent actions, it is better to ask for advice from an experienced specialist.
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