Water supply of a country house from a well: the specifics of providing private houses with well water
One of the most popular options for organizing water supply in a private house is the use of well water. Compared to the well, the cost of the well is quite moderate. Yes, and in operation this ancient building is much easier.
Over time, pulling water into the house with buckets bothers, and the idea of establishing water supply for a country house from a well looks more attractive. It remains only to find out the nuances of this process and proceed with the implementation of bold plans. Moreover, some craftsmen managed to dig a deep well almost alone.
We suggest that you familiarize yourself with the rules and features of the device for supplying water from the well to the water points in the house. Here you will find out how and by what schemes the assembly of water circuits is made. For visual perception, we attached photos, diagrams and videos to the text.
The content of the article:
- Pros and cons of the "well" option
- What should be a good well?
- Well organization options
- External and internal water supply
- Installation of a water supply system
- Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Pros and cons of the "well" option
Before starting such a large-scale project, its pros and cons should be evaluated. In addition to the relatively low construction costs, it is worth noting the ability to use the well even during blackouts, simply picking up a bucket of water. In addition, permissions are not needed for the well; you can simply dig it out in a suitable place.
But you should not disregard some of the problems associated with the water supply from the well. Water in the upper horizon is rarely of high quality, which will invariably affect the operation of the equipment. For technical needs, it is quite acceptable, but it is usually not suitable for drinking and cooking.
To provide the house with clean water, you will have to dig a pretty deep well. Unlike a well, a well needs regular cleaning, which should be done once or twice a year.To improve the quality of well water, it is recommended to install a reliable filter system.
Flood and sewage pollution is a familiar problem for many well owners. To avoid it, special protective measures will be required. Another problem is the seasonal change in the level of groundwater, it can be very significant.
Sometimes the appearance of a well on a site changes the pattern of groundwater flow under the surface of the site in such a way that a threat to the integrity of the foundation may appear. To prevent such a problem, you should consult with a specialist or discuss the situation with neighbors who already have a well.
What should be a good well?
First, choose a place for the well. It must meet several requirements:
- be located where the aquifer is as close to the surface as possible;
- be located as close to home as possible;
- to be removed at a considerable distance from possible sources of pollution: cesspools, places of keeping pets, etc.
If such a place is selected, you can start work. Significant amounts of soil will be extracted in the process. In order not to pollute the site, you should take care in advance of a suitable place for excavated land. For example, it can be used to improve your personal landscape.
Various materials are used to form the walls of the well: brick, stone, logs, etc. But the vast majority of modern wells are made of concrete rings.
This is an affordable and relatively inexpensive material, reliable in operation and convenient for installation. Of course, the gaps between the rings are carefully sealed and covered with waterproofing materials.
When choosing rings for a well, several important points to consider:
- use special concrete rings for wells that were not in use;
- remember that cheap rings, especially used ones, have a reduced resource of strength and may have impurities that affect the quality of well water;
- rings with cracks or other technical defects should not be used;
- taking the rings delivered to the object, measure their height and other parameters with your own tape measure, especially if the construction of the well is entrusted to the team, which receives payment depending on the number of rings.
Another important point is the debit of the well, i.e. the amount of water that can be obtained in a short period of time. To determine this indicator, water is pumped out, and then its volume is measured.
To make a well of concrete rings, they dig a shaft, into which the rings are gradually lowered, installing them one on top of the other. The correct installation is checked with a plumb line. It is also necessary to ensure that the mine is spacious enough and even.
Is there already a well on the site? This does not mean that you can immediately buy pumping equipment. First, you should check for compliance with the design requirements for the water supply of a private house from a well: its depth, debit, etc.
In any case, before installing the system, you need to clean it. If it is necessary to deepen an existing well, the water is pumped out, the shaft is deepened and its walls are reinforced with concrete rings of a smaller diameter.
Well organization options
There are two common home water supply schemes from the well: using a storage tank or pump station. In the first case, a special container is used, into which water is supplied using a suitable pump.
From the storage tank, water enters the water system of the house. In the second case, a pump station with a hydraulic storage tank and an automatic control system is used. Both methods have their advantages and disadvantages, the choice should be made depending on the situation.
Option # 1 - Storage Tank Systems
The storage tank should be installed as high as possible. Usually choose a suitable place on the top floor or install it in the attic. If the attic is not heated, it is necessary to insulate the storage tank, otherwise in winter the water in it may simply freeze.
The higher the tank is located, the greater the pressure in the water supply network of the house will be. In addition to the tank you will need pump - submersible or surface.
However, it should be remembered that such a system usually provides the minimum allowable pressure indicators. Each meter of water column height will give approximately 0.1 atm. system pressure.
The pump, with which the tank is filled with water, can be turned on manually or automate its operation. In any case, it is necessary to provide for the installation of a special tube that will protect the tank from overflow.
A system with a storage tank is good because a significant supply of water is created in the house, which can be used in normal mode, even if the power supply to the pump is cut off for some reason.
In addition, the cost of creating such a water supply is not so low. The main drawback of such a system is the relatively low pressure in the water supply. And the owners of the house do not have the opportunity to arbitrarily change this indicator.
Option # 2 - water supply with a pumping station
A pumping station is a device in which a pump, a hydraulic accumulator and auto relaycontrolling the operation of this pump.
If you supply water to the water supply system immediately after its intake by a pump, the equipment will turn on every time someone uses water in the house. Of course, under such conditions, any pumping equipment will soon fail.
When using a pumping station, the device is turned on only in order to fill the hydraulic accumulator tank when the amount of water in it reaches a minimum level. As soon as the tank is full, the relay automatically shuts off the pump. Again it will turn on only after the tank is empty, etc.
The pump station can be assembled independently, but ready-made units with various characteristics and at affordable prices are available for sale. They are equipped with both submersible and surface pumps of different capacities.
It should be remembered that in the event of a breakdown of the submersible pump, it will first have to be removed from a fairly considerable depth. But with surface models, another problem arises - they are very noisy.
Such pumping station best placed as far away from home as possible. Or you should take care of additional sound insulation of the room, if the equipment is installed in the house.
Pump station - the device is not too large, such a unit will not take up much space. But the capacity of the accumulator is also small, so when the power is turned off, the water will almost immediately stop entering the system, you will have to use a bucket on the rope.
When choosing a suitable pumping station, you should pay attention to the power of the equipment, the height of the water supply, the performance of the unit, as well as the volume of the membrane tank - accumulator. In addition, make sure that the unit is equipped with protection systems against overheating and dry running.
On sale there are devices with manual, automatic and even remote control, you need to decide in advance about your own wishes in this regard.
For permanent use, they usually choose fully automated systems, but for a summer cottage that is used only in the summer, inexpensive equipment with manual control is quite suitable.
The power and capacity of the pumping station are determined by the need for water. So, for a small cottage, a device with a productivity of 600-1000 l / h is quite enough, but for a private house, in which a family of four constantly resides, it makes sense to choose a more powerful device - 3000-6000 l / h.
The larger the accumulator volume, the less discomfort will cause a power outage, since there will be more water in the system. But such a station will cost more, and it will be a little more difficult to install.
The price is also affected by the material the tank is made of. Plastic is cheaper, and cast iron, which has a longer service life, is more expensive. The presence of protective systems also significantly affects the price, but to refuse them and risk expensive equipment is unreasonable.
You will find valuable recommendations on choosing a pumping station for arranging a suburban area in another popular article our site.
External and internal water supply
If the choice between the storage tank and the pumping station is made, it is time to begin to carry out the necessary complex of work. Regardless of the selected system, you need to install the water supply system, namely its external and internal parts.
Outside, you should dig a trench so that the pipe runs below the level of freezing in this particular area. At the same time, a slope of 3 cm for each meter of the highway is observed.
The pipe on the site above the freezing horizon must be insulated before entering the house. In cases where the pipeline is laid above the horizon of seasonal freezing, the problem is solved using a heating cable. In the trench under the pipeline it is convenient to place the electric cable of the pump. If its length is not enough, the cable can be “extended”.
But it is best to entrust this operation to an experienced electrician, since in the event of a breakdown, it will be necessary to carry out large-scale earthwork or even completely replace part of the damaged equipment.
For an external water supply it is quite suitable plastic pipes. A trench is brought to the well, a hole is made in its wall through which the pipe is introduced. The branch of the pipeline inside the well is increased with the help of fittings, which at the same time will provide the section necessary for a stable flow of water.
If included in the water supply scheme submersible pump, it is attached to the edge of the pipe and lowered into the well. If the pumping station will pump water, the pipe edge is equipped with a filter and a check valve.
The distance between the bottom of the well and the lowest point of the pumping system should be at least a meter, so that sand grains sprinkled by the machine do not fall into it.
The hole around the inlet of the pipe is carefully sealed with cement mortar. To prevent sand and dirt from entering the system, a regular filter in the form of a mesh is placed on the lower end of the pipe.
A long pin is driven into the bottom of the well. A pipe is attached to it in order to reliably fix its position. The other end of the pipe is connected to a hydraulic accumulator or storage tank, depending on the type of system selected.
After the trench is buried, an earthen castle should be installed around the well with the following parameters: depth - 40-50 cm, radius - about 150 cm. The castle will protect the well from the penetration of melt and groundwater.
To house water is introduced so that this place is hidden under the floor. To do this, partially dig the foundation to make a hole in it.
Installation of the internal water supply can be made of metal pipes, but the owners of country houses almost always choose modern plastic structures. They weigh easier and easier to mount.
A soldering iron for PVC pipes is needed, with which the ends of the pipes are heated and reliably connected. Even a novice master can do this soldering on their own, but you should familiarize yourself with common mistakes when soldering PVC pipes to ensure a really reliable connection.
Here are some useful rules:
- soldering work should be carried out in a clean room;
- the joints, like the pipes as a whole, should be thoroughly cleaned of any contaminants;
- any moisture from the outside and inside of the pipes must be carefully removed;
- Do not keep the pipes on the soldering iron for a long time to avoid overheating;
- heated pipes should be immediately connected and held in the correct position for several seconds to prevent deformation at the joint;
- possible swaths and excess material should be removed after cooling the pipes.
Subject to these rules, a truly reliable and durable connection is obtained. If the soldering is performed poorly, soon such a connection may leak, which will lead to the need for large-scale repairs.
Installation of a water supply system
A few useful general rules can help you get things right. water supply cottages or a cottage from a well:
- it is necessary to correlate the performance of the pump and the multiplicity of the hydraulic exchange of the well, so that the pumping equipment does not work idle if the water in the well does not have time to collect;
- as a protective measure, the pump should be equipped with an automatic unit that will turn off the equipment if the system stops receiving water;
- when closing the entrance of the water pipe into the wall of the well, it is recommended to pay special attention to the reliability of sealing using multilayer insulation, which includes not only cement mortar, but also a layer of silicone and water glass;
- so that in the event of equipment breakdown, water does not leave the system back into the well, a special check valve should be installed;
- in addition to the strainer at the end of the water pipe lowered into the well, it is recommended to use an additional mechanical cleaning filter, which is installed after the pump;
- filters should be selected and placed in such a way that it is easy to carry out their maintenance, in particular, replacement of cartridges;
- in case of an accident, it is mandatory to provide for the installation of a drain cock, which will completely remove water from the system if the equipment suddenly breaks.
The easiest way is to install a system with a storage tank and a manually controlled pump. When installing and connecting the pumping station, you should carefully study the manufacturer's recommendations and accurately implement them.
Stage # 1 - put the pump and storage tank
The process of installing a system with a storage tank is relatively straightforward. It is necessary to install a tank; for this, a container made of stainless steel or plastic is usually used. The more water it holds, the better, however, it should be remembered that this creates an additional load on the floors and foundation.
To correlate the bearing capacity of building structures with increased load, engineering calculations may be required.As mentioned earlier, it is recommended to insulate the tank.
The second important element of this system is the pump. If water is drawn from a depth of less than 9 meters, a surface self-priming pump can be used. Such models are cheaper and easier to operate, but for their correct operation you will need a warmed room: basement, utility room, etc.
Sometimes a utility building is placed next to the well. If the depth of water intake exceeds 9 meters, you will need a special deep pump. In wells, you can use both vibrational and centrifugal models.
Stage # 2 - connect the pumping station
For the pumping station, you can also arrange a utility room near the well or place it directly in the house. If you decide to install it below ground level, you should dig a recess so that all equipment is located below the freezing point of the soil. A chamber for pumping equipment is carefully insulated.
First set diaphragm tank and a pump, then a monitoring relay is connected to the system. It is connected to the plumbing system using a special adapter tap.
The connection procedure is usually indicated on the cover of the device or in its instructions. Already installed factory settings are not always suitable for a specific situation, so almost certainly the relay will have to be configured in a new way.
A separate power supply line with a circuit breaker should be provided for the pumping station. After that, the system is turned on and its operation checked.
Particular attention should be paid to the junction of system elements with water pipes in order to immediately eliminate possible leaks.
If the installation of autonomous water supply from its own well is completed correctly, it will function successfully for many years. It is only necessary to regularly carry out the necessary maintenance: cleaning the well, replacing the filters, checking the settings of the automatic control system, etc.
A significant part of all the work a skilled craftsman can do on his own, however, for complex operations, such as soldering PVC pipes or connecting electricians, it makes sense to invite a specialist.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
The following video details tips for self-assembly and installation of a pumping station:
For comfortable and stable autonomous water supply, pumping stations are most often used. They are reliable and easy to maintain..
A storage tank system is a low-cost option for water supply and is more suitable for temporary rather than permanent use.
Want to share your personal experience in the device of water supply in a suburban area? Have questions while familiarizing yourself with the information we provided? Please leave comments.