A do-it-yourself well in a country house: a guide for arranging a typical well from rings
Own water source in your favorite summer cottage will significantly increase the level of comfort. Eliminates the need to carry water in buckets to care for reverently grown plants, to fill containers in a bathhouse or shower.
The construction of a water intake facility can be entrusted to a team of workers specializing in this field. But it is better to dig and equip the well in the country with your own hands, investing a minimum of money in it. We will tell you how to choose a place for a water source, how to drill and equip a mine.
The content of the article:
- Competent preparation - 100% success
- Construction of a well from concrete rings
- Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Competent preparation - 100% success
Any enterprise requires a thorough preliminary preparation from the future contractor. Especially as time-consuming as digging a well.
Errors in planning, the distribution of forces and work stages will certainly affect the result. In the best case, the construction will stretch for a long, but unknown period, at worst it will end with the construction of a useless tunnel "to nowhere."
Researches of the independent hydrogeologist
In order to exclude the meaningless expenditures of funds and muscular efforts, it is necessary to conduct preliminary hydrogeological studies.
The best option for research is drilling. However, it is at least unreasonable to carry it out on your own before the construction of the well, and hiring drillers is expensive and unprofitable. It’s better then to immediately drill a water well.
Independent hydrogeological surveys consist in a banal questioning of neighbors who have their own well or well.
Find out from them you need:
- At what depth mark is the water mirror in the flood and dry periods.
- How many meters have been drilled or dug for a water intake facility.
- Does the water have the ability to “leave” from the intake, if the summer is not happy with rainfall for two / three weeks, but the heat is exhausting.
- What soil was extracted from the wellbore or well during their development: was it clay or sandy.
- Whether the drillers had to break a boulder with a chisel or did the builders of the well raise a large heavy stone from the well.
By tradition, suburban land plots and summer cottages are located in a flat area without pronounced relief structures. Wells dig in sedimentary deposits that are easy to develop.
Work is carried out to the first aquifer, trying to bypass and block the upper water, if it is located at a depth of about 3-4 m from the day surface.
Underground water contained in the pores of sedimentary rocks usually lies in the form of a kind of basin. According to gravitational regulations and the law of communicating vessels, the surface of this basin is at practically the same depth at all points.
This means that the geological and hydrogeological situation at your site will be almost the same as that of your neighbor.
Some level deviations are recorded along the groundwater. For example, if it is unloaded in the form of a spring in a ravine located 3-5 km from the work site.
Then the level at the point closer to the spring will be slightly lower than in the distant analog. However, these deviations can be neglected when digging a well, because their value is usually not significant.
Significant changes in the height of the groundwater level (groundwater level) will occur if a well is placed on a hillside. Water will always drain towards the easy discharge, which the slope provides. Therefore, they try not to build wells at such sites, because natural drainage significantly reduces the amount of water produced.
From neighboring sources, you can determine the depth of the mirror with fairly high accuracy using a barometer. Its scale is marked with divisions with a price of 0.1 mm, which in translation to elevations is 1 m.
So, if the device shows 831.7 mm above the neighboring mine and 831.5 mm above the point of the planned well, then the depth of your water intake will be 2 m more.
Information on the composition of soils will help to evaluate their own forces for self-digging. If the neighbors will assure the complexity of the development and the presence of a large number of boulders, it is better to delegate the work to the team of shabashnikov. All the same, they will have to follow their actions, which means with well construction technologies need to familiarize yourself.
In addition to the “testimonies” of the owners of the existing water intake facilities, organizations that have carried out drilling or construction near your site can also provide information on the hydrogeological conditions of the area. Information can be provided by the local weather service, which has a complete package of data on climatic conditions, natural phenomena and geological conditions in the region.
How to determine the location for digging a well
For a water intake facility it is necessary in advance pick a suitable place. It is undesirable to arrange it where garden plants have been planted for several decades and fertilized the earth with chemical compounds.
Note that well water is rarely potable. If the plans do not include the extraction of just the drinking category, then you can ignore the previous fertilizer application cycles.
We list the main factors influencing the selection of a place for the construction of a well:
- Exclusion of pollution. Remoteness from places of probable introduction of negative components: from household and farm buildings, cattle pens, cesspools, compost piles of at least 20 m. In the case of a well with drinking water in a summer cottage, there should not be such objects at all.
- Cost reduction. The shortest maximally direct route of the pipeline, if it is planned to install a water supply system. The shorter the length of the trunk, the less money will be spent.
- Optimal location. Between the foundation of the cottage and the well should be at least 5 m. The water intake facility will “draw in” ground water into itself by the principle of whirlpool. He will constantly strive to replenish the accumulated reserves, attracting not only water, but also particles of soil, which will eventually wash out the soil under the foundation at a close location of the well.
Vast cottage lands are rare for our realities, therefore it is strange to choose a place in the direction of groundwater movement on the site, at least. However, if the land surface of the allotment has a certain bias, then it is best to choose a place under the well at the lowest point. There, the thickness of the soil to be extracted will be smaller, and the influx of water more.
Specificity of a typical well design
The maximum depth of a traditional well with a shaft-shaft is considered to be 30 m. Digging below is dangerous, too hard, and impractical in terms of costs and labor. In the country, you can make a very shallow well, the height of the mine which will be 6 - 8 m.
Digging a shallow shaft is not difficult; a standard bucket or an inexpensive surface pump is suitable for extracting water. However, the produced water of shallow workings is applicable exclusively for irrigation and other household purposes.
Intake production can be done with a shaft of 15 - 20 m. From this depth, it is more likely to get water that is available for drinking. The chances are especially increased if the aquifer overlaps with loam or sandy loam - clay rocks that do not allow water to pass through. They prevent the penetration of atmospheric and flood water along with domestic wastewater, industrial oils, and chemicals.
The task of the well builder is not only to extract the soil from the mine, but also to form the walls of the well shaft. They are built of stone, brick, logs, plates of wood, timber, monolithic reinforced concrete, poured into the formwork arranged in the pit.
The most common material variant for wall construction at the moment is factory concrete rings or their home-made analogues, poured into the mold right at the work site.
Regardless of the material used for the construction of the walls of the well, they are constructed in accordance with a single structural scheme. Its main parts are:
- Heading. Part of the mine, towering above the earth's surface. Standard height 0.7 - 0.8 m, but with variations. Equipped with a well house to protect against atmospheric negativity. For manual lifting of water it is equipped with a collar or crane.
- Trunk. The part of the shaft, measured from the mark of the earth's surface to a water mirror. Serves to strengthen the walls of the mine and to protect against soil collapses.
- Water intake part. A section of a mine submerged in an aquifer. The main working element of the well, ensuring the supply of water to the structure, if necessary, creating its stock.
In addition to the geometric parameters, there are no significant differences in the design of the head and barrel. Width and height are different, and the shape of the shaft in terms of: square or round. The main structural difference, which determines the division of wells into types, is determined by the principle of the structure of the water intake part.
According to differences in the structure of the water intake part, wells are divided into:
- Imperfect. The water intake part of this type is immersed in a water-saturated formation at approximately 70% of the capacity of the water carrier. The mine is not installed on the water block, because the influx of water into it occurs both through the bottom and through the walls of the water intake part.
- Perfect. The water intake part is completely buried in the aquifer. The base of the shaft rests on a water-resistant formation, due to which the inflow of water is carried out exclusively through the side walls.
- Perfect with a sump. The water intake part rests on a water-resistant layer, water enters the shaft laterally through the walls. The water intake is supplemented by a kind of reservoir formed in the underlying aquifer with a water-resistant layer.
The sump is arranged to form a supply of water. Therefore, its volume is calculated based on the actual daily consumption. If necessary, to increase the volume of water that can be pumped out at a time, the sump is arranged in the form of a bell with an extension to the base.
In a reasonable choice of the optimal well design, a survey of neighbors can also help. A similar imperfect or sumpfied perfect scheme may suit you. It all depends on the actual water needs.
It should be remembered that well water cannot be “stagnated” in a mine. In the case of a long stay there, it will bloom or begin to rot.
If you do not plan permanent residence in the country with a plentiful intake of water procedures, then an insufficient amount of water will give an imperfect design. At the bottom she is satisfied bottom filter from gravel or crushed stone filling for holding sand grains.
Construction of a well from concrete rings
The construction of a water source in a summer cottage is the simplest option available for independent execution. The use of ready-made concrete rings will allow you to dig an excellent well in the country with the least loss of effort and expense of money, and if you wish, decorate the head with a stone or log.
However, the most economical method will still be self-priming. reinforced concrete well elements.
The technology of the construction of the finished rings
AT construction of wells from concrete rings mainly the lowering method is used. Although you can go the other way: install concrete elements in a previously dug shaft, but the lowering method is more practical and safe. With it, the walls of the shaft are strengthened simultaneously with the extraction of soil, which eliminates the collapse of loose rocks in the trunk during operation.
For the construction of a well, both concrete and reinforced concrete rings with a chamfer along the end edge are suitable. Note that with equal sizes, the first and second options differ in mass. For example, with a concrete ring Ø 1 m in height, 0.7 m high, the weight will average 800 kg. A similar reinforced concrete element will weigh only about 500 kg.
In addition, the wall thickness of the concrete ring for the construction of the well should be at least 10 cm, better than 12 cm. And when using reinforced concrete rings, a minimum of 6 cm is allowed, but the average thickness is 7 - 8 cm.
The size of the walls to a large extent affects the size of the inner diameter, and it, in turn, affects the convenience during the development of the mine and the subsequent use of the well.
A suitable diameter of the rings is selected with a reference to the comfortable position of the worker during digging in the mine. On average, it is from 1.0 m to a maximum of 1.5 m. You should not hope that there will be more water in a wide well. If it is imperfect, then the inflow will be equivalent to both a wide and a narrow trunk.
In addition to the factory concrete rings, you also need to purchase a shoe - a shortened concrete ring equipped with a cutter along the lower edge. It will speed up penetration and ensure smooth immersion of the column of concrete elements in the ground. When the mine is made up of home-made rings, the lower edge of the launch is made in the form of a cone.
If friable sands were removed during the digging of a neighboring well, then there is a possibility of pinching the upper part of the trunk with collapsed rock. At the same time, the lower part continues to fall, the upper remains clamped in place, and a gap appears between them, which is extremely difficult to eliminate.
To avoid such a serious accident, it is better to stock up on a 16 mm bar for the manufacture of staples fastening the rings or a strip with a thickness of 5-10 mm.
To facilitate the procedure for lifting soil from the mine under development, it is advisable to make a tripod and attach a block to its top. Thus, the matter of freeing the trunk from dumped rock is moving more conveniently and faster.
Steps of the lowering method for constructing an imperfect mine well:
- Mark the outline of the shaft according to the actual size of the rings. The simplest method of marking is to install a peg in the center with a twine tied to it, equal to half the diameter of the ring. This simplified compass must outline the borders.
- We tear out a round pit according to the marking. It can be slightly wider than the outline so that it is easier to immerse the starting ring. Dig about ¾ the height of the concrete element.
- We install a shoe with a cutter in the pit, check its position with a level. If necessary, align the position so that there is no further distortion of the trunk.
- Immerse the starting ring in the mine. We fasten it with the shoe in four places with brackets or metal plates cut from the strip, if there is no certainty that when immersing the shoe does not separate from the concrete column.
- We select the soil inside the mine without digging it under the shoe.
- We dig four or more cavities under the shoe so that logs of equal height, bricks or similar temporary supports can fit there.
- We install the supports so that the assembled part of the well rests evenly on them. We control the landing of the trunk with a level and a plumb line, so that in the future we will not correct flaws that increase with depth.
- We dig in the remaining areas under the shoe and knock out temporary supports.
- Settles the ring in the ground, trying to maintain uniformity of immersion.
- We act in accordance with the above algorithm until the upper edge of the ring aligns with the day surface.
- We put a sealant along the chamfer of the installed ring - tarred hemp cord Ø 20 mm. We use a sealant for at least three to five lower rings. It is needed in the water intake part and slightly higher in case the level rises during the flood period.
- We install the next ring, if necessary, connect it to the previous one in 3-4 places around the circumference.
Using this method, we deepen and build up the rings until water-saturated sand appears. We dig into it as many meters of the mine as the neighbors had. At this time, it will be necessary to constantly pump out water from the development so that it does not interfere with the employee.
If there is no information on deepening into an aquifer, then after installation of at least one concrete element, it is necessary to make another simplified exploration.
Before digging the soil under the trunk, you need to dig something like a pit in the center. If the pit contains only sand and small stones, then the development of the mine can continue until the next ring is submerged.
Then reconnaissance is carried out until the roof of the water-resistant layer appears on the bottom of the pit - a clay clay similar to plasticine rock. This is a signal to stop digging.
Now the work in the mine consists only in the device of the bottom filter from a three-layer gravel backfill. Gravel is poured into three tiers with a thickness of 15 - 20 cm. The fraction of each upper layer should be larger than the lower one.
When installing a perfect well in the country, the shaft should be installed on the roof of the water-resistant formation. Intelligence, of course, is not necessary during the digging period. The mine is simply gradually submerged until it rests in a water stop.
It should be noted that one or more starting links of a perfect well must pass water through the walls. To do this, in rings in a checkerboard pattern similarities are formed of windows filled with a fine mesh, cinderbread crackers or similar porous materials with filtering capabilities.
The number of rings should be such as to completely overlap and slightly exceed the capacity of the water carrier.
Rings with side filters are used not only in the construction of perfect wells, but also in the construction of imperfect structures in formations with a weak influx of water.
Before deciding whether to dig a well itself or to invite migrant workers, it is worth calculating the amount to be paid for digging a well. Definition Details own source prices learn from our recommended article.
Homemade ring device method
The construction technology is similar to the previous method, but complicated by the procedure for manufacturing concrete rings. To do this, it is necessary to stock up in advance with a collapsible formwork from boards or sheet metal interconnected into one canvas.
It is clear that the formwork should be paired: one part must repeat the outer surface of the ring, the second inner. The size and shape of the formwork is best chosen according to the dimensions of the factory rings.
To prepare the solution, Portland cement of brand no lower than 400, river or quarry sand and gravel fraction 30 - 70 are required. In order for the rings to freely immerse in the soil, you need to maximize the smoothness of the wall of your own handiwork. Therefore, preference should be given to the gravel of small fractions.
Water is needed with neutral acidity. Its volume is determined by the graphs of the CC, taking into account that the water-cement ratio for pouring well elements cannot be less than 0.7. Given the consumption of cement with water, it is possible to calculate the volume of the initial components for the manufacture of rings.
It is necessary to think over the type of seam edge of the rings in advance: the butt quarter will be straight or with a beveled wall.
To form a fold during the pouring period, two more ring-shaped parts will be required, one of which must be laid on the bottom of the formwork, the second on top of the pouring. These parts must be combined so that the manufactured elements of the well can be tightly connected.
At the stage of formwork preparation, a decision is made to use reinforcement. If a reinforcing framework is used, then the flow rate of the grout to be reduced. It is possible that the cost of the ring will increase slightly, but at the same time, the rigidity and strength of the structure will increase.
The fittings are constructed from vertically mounted rods and horizontally stacked rings from a bar of 10 - 12 mm. The diameter of the rings should be less than the size of the outer part of the formwork assembly, but larger than the inner one, so that the structure fits freely into the gap formed by them.
Between the vertical elements of the reinforcing cage should be about 25 cm, between horizontal rings 10 -20 cm. To create a single system, the reinforcing bars and rings are fastened with knitting wire.
Formwork is filled in layers of 100-150 mm thick. As filling, the solution is rammed until a cement milk protrudes onto the surface.Ramming should be performed necessarily, the denser the mortar is laid, the higher the strength characteristics of the product.
After laying the mixture in the formwork, care should be taken to ensure its proper hardening. The first 10 days the ring must be protected from possible freezing and drying out. The surface should be periodically wetted or covered with wet sawdust.
The starting ring is made with a lower cutting edge. If you don’t feel like messing with the edge device, you can buy or pour the shoe separately. The formation of filter windows in the walls of concrete rings, as in the previous case, depends on the design type of the well. The technology for constructing a mine from homemade rings is generally no different.
Having completed work on the construction of a well mine, we can safely proceed to the arrangement of our own source. At the bottom of an imperfect structure, the trunk of which is buried in an aquifer, but does not rest on water-resistant rock, a bottom filter should be constructed.
A clay castle should be arranged around the barrel to protect it from getting sewage into the mine. The tip must be equipped with at least a lid or canopy and a device for raising well water.
Do not forget that in addition to digging your own water source, its owner also has to carry out regular maintenance. The methods, rules and frequency of cleaning the well is devoted this article.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Video # 1. How to choose the best place for a well in a suburban area:
Video # 2. Example of a hand digging a mine well:
Video # 3. A video with a step-by-step demonstration of the process of arranging a mine well with your own hands:
Building your own well is not an easy, but quite feasible task that a home foreman can solve without involving hired workers. True, he will need at least two assistants to extract the soil to the surface and to monitor the condition of the worker at the bottom of the mine.
In case of dizziness, it must immediately be lifted to the surface, and before work regularly check the gas contamination by a burning candle or gas analyzer.
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