How to install an adapter for a well with your own hands: the best alternative to a caisson

Nikolay Fedorenko
Checked by a specialist: Nikolay Fedorenko
Author: Elena Nikolaeva
Last update: March 2019

One of the prerequisites for the uninterrupted operation of autonomous water supply is the protection of communications from icing in the winter. This problem can be solved by diverting the system below the level of soil freezing dangerous for it, as well as connecting the pipe coming from the well pump through the adapter.

We will tell you what this device is, what advantages stand out in comparison with the construction of the caisson. You will learn how to install the adapter for the well with your own hands, how to connect it to the pipeline and at what depth. Based on our tips, you can independently deliver it without any problems.

Well arrangement using an adapter

Installation of a downhole adapter is the cheapest way to drain water, which does not require thermal insulation of the pipeline when laying below the level of freezing of the soil.

With the correctly carried out installation of such structures as a pit and a caisson, there is no need to protect the pipes from freezing. This provides access to repair the wellbore and pump.

Design features of the device

The downhole adapter is a special device. It provides a sealed entry of water-supplying pipes through the casing when equipping a non-freezing water supply. In essence, the adapter is an angular connector.

The principle of operation of the downhole adapter
The principle of operation of the adapter is that it redirects water rising up the well shaft to the pipeline leading to the house, which is located below the level of freezing of the earth

Well adapters, although they have a fairly simple design, the equipment of the well with their use is associated with many features.This specificity largely determines the life of the hydraulic structure.

The main elements of the adapter are the outer and inner parts.

Internal flow part

Outwardly, this part of the device resembles a tee. One of its sides is deaf. It is equipped with the technical thread required to fit the two parts of the adapter. The other part is connected to the pipe leading to the deep pump. The central branch of the similarity of the tee is equipped with the second half of the general connection of the dovetail design.

The main elements of the device
The reverse side of the holder is equipped with an annular groove designed for rubber gaskets, as well as protrusions for pressing the wedge of the mating part

Its installation is carried out in the hole of the casing, fixing with a union nut equipped with a sealing ring.

Rubber seals are designed to seal the well from groundwater. The first seal is placed on the inner surface of the plane of the holder, the second between the outer wall and the union nut.

Outer mating

This is a compact threaded pipe. It is connected to the PND pipe and to the pump discharge nozzle, and is connected to the main part by threading a special rod into the wedge sled. In addition to the wedge, it is equipped with an annular groove and two fittings with internal thread.

The main feature of the device is the strong matching of the external and internal elements, referred to as the "dovetail".

The connection elements dovetail
Thanks to this design solution, a tight connection of the vertical and horizontal sections of the water supply system is obtained, followed by their output through the casing

The intermediate element nipple, representing a single design with a holder, is designed to connect the water supply to the pump.

Advantages and disadvantages of “adapter” technology

Adapter well technology is a good alternative installation of a caisson. And the reason for this is a number of indisputable advantages that the downhole adapter has:

  • Affordable cost. The price of the adapter is much cheaper than the caisson, so a wide range of customers can afford to purchase and install a device on their site.
  • Easy installation. It does not imply the use of welding equipment and the availability of welder skills for the contractor. Earthwork is carried out to a minimum - only along the connected branch of the water supply. Even a novice master can handle the installation of a downhole adapter.
  • High system tightness. The adapter links adjoin extremely tightly to each other. The sealing ring of the device is quite capable of withstanding the pressure of the system at 7-8 atmospheres. A design that involves disassembling the flow part of the device inside the casing, even if there is a leak, will ensure the operation of the device.
  • Big bearing ability. Depending on the wall thickness of the device and the material of manufacture, all sections of the adapter thread are able to withstand the connected communications and submersible pump, the total weight of which reaches from 200 to 800 kg.
  • Aesthetic qualities. Due to the possibility of flush mounting, a well equipped with an adapter will hardly be noticeable in the area. This is especially true for owners who are afraid of pump theft.

Due to the high tightness of the device, it can be safely used in the construction of the system in areas with a typical for the off-season overhead, as well as located in close proximity to underground communication lines.

Arrangement of the system using an adapter
Installation of the adapter is a win-win option in case of irregular use of the well and “freezing” of the hydraulic structure for a long period

But, like any device, a very useful device is not without drawbacks.For example, when installing the downhole adapter, it is impossible to provide quick access if repair and maintenance work is necessary.

It is possible to guarantee the tightness of the docking of the parts of the downhole adapter provided that the external and internal gaskets are prophylactically treated, as well as their timely replacement.

For example, an external gasket in direct contact with the ground becomes unusable after operation for 2-3 years. And to carry out these works, you have to dig a pit, which is not always possible.

Features of mounting the device
The installation of the adapter limits the ability to connect additional water sources from the well, for example, to irrigate a site

Brass and other metal alloys used in the manufacture of cheap adapters are oxidized during operation. As a result of this, seizure of parts is often observed in the joints, which complicates the process of removing the pump.

For this reason, experts advise purchasing adapters made of bronze, stainless steel and specialized “food” alloys. These oxidation-resistant metals will last from 20 to 50 years.

In Europe today, only adapters made of food alloys such as DZR or Sanitary Brass are used. But domestic GOSTs allow the use of stainless, bronze and brass devices due to the fact that the area of ​​contact of its elements with water is negligible.

Another weak point is the connection of the adapter to the drain pipe and the hose on which the pump is mounted.

Connection adapter to the drainpipe
The key reason for the possible depressurization of structural joints is that the docking elements are made of different materials.

Docking elements of the system react differently to the effects of temperature and moisture, and also have a different period of wear and aging. Therefore, experts advise, if possible, to make the pipe leading from the well to the house out of stainless steel.

Instructions on equipping the well with an adapter

Set the downhole adapter to casing it is possible both in a newly erected hydraulic structure, and in an already installed one.

The adapter attached to the wall of the casing takes a certain place inside it. Therefore, the cross-section of the casing must be 20–25 mm larger than the diameter of the pump used.

Step # 1 - preparing the necessary materials

For work, you need a set of tools:

  • bayonet shovel;
  • adjustable wrench;
  • metal pegs;
  • bimetal castellated milling cutter.

In advance, it is worthwhile to purchase a neutral water-repellent lubricant, which will need to be treated with the insertion points before being buried in the ground.

Lubrication of device elements
When choosing a lubricant, be guided by its composition so that the components of the sealant do not react with the rubber and during operation do not corrode it

From the materials should also be prepared:

  • adapter;
  • puller;
  • FUM tape;
  • silicone sealant;
  • connecting fittings.

The puller is a steel mounting pipe of the required size, equipped with a thread at the end. It will be necessary both for installation and dismantling of the adapter in case of repair work.

Before starting work, the purchased adapter should be brought into a condition suitable for the upcoming installation. To do this, remove industrial grease from it, and treat the sealing ring with silicone sealant.

Step # 2 - excavation

Earthwork is best done off-season. During this period, water-saturated and chilled soil does not sprinkle so much. Carrying out work in the dry months, take care of strengthening the walls of the pit. For this purpose, use board cuts and chipboard sheets.

Drilling a pit near the casing
Drilling a pit can be combined with digging trenches for laying water pipes from the adapter to the local water supply system located in the house

To gain access to the installation site, the first thing to do is dig up the casing. The depth of the pit should be such that it exceeds the freezing mark by 20-40 cm. For regions located in the middle latitudes, this value is 1.5-2 meters.

The width of the sample must be at least 160 mm. This will provide further convenience when performing insertion work on the device.

To hide the well in the ground and make it inconspicuous for "uninvited guests", as well as inaccessible to winds and snowfalls, the casing is shortened to ground level.

Step # 3 - installing the main part

The holder and the wedge of the device are mounted separately. Before installing the main part of the downhole adapter, you must first drill a hole for it at the depth of the water supply in the casing wall.

This can be done using a crown equipped with a bimetallic crown mill, the diameter of which corresponds to the dimensions of the device:

  • for 1ʺ - holes d 4.4 cm;
  • for 1ʺ1 / 4 - holes d 5.4 cm;
  • for 2ʺ - holes d 7.3 cm.

Do not be afraid of clogging the well with metal filings. Most of them spill out or remain in the cavity of the crown.

Threaded seal
To increase the tightness of the structure, the threaded connection should be sealed with FUM tape or any other packaging material.

Installation of the structure is carried out using a steel mounting pipe equipped with a thread. The required length is calculated by lowering the measured lot into the well. After calculating the depth of the equipment, the excess part of the pipe is cut so that it is flush with the neck of the cut casing.

Having lowered the main part of the device into the pipe cavity, carefully insert it into the hole and securely fix it with the crimp ring included in the device’s package. The nut connecting the elements is carefully tightened with an adjustable wrench.

Mounting pipe immersion
A mounting pipe equipped with a thread is temporarily inserted into the adapter counterpart: first screwed into the device opening, and after installation is completed, they are removed

After installation, the steel pipe is usually removed to the surface. But some masters still recommend leaving a pipe cut in the device. The main argument is that such a solution will prevent damage to threaded joints under the influence of vibration of the deep pump.

To the outside of the adapter, equipped with a threaded connection, fix the tap of the water pipe. To keep the connection firm and reliable, it is sealed with FUM tape or any other packaging material.

Step # 4 - installation of the mating part

This part of the adapter is attached to the pump hose. Well pump immersion it is more convenient to carry out together: the first lowers the equipment, the second - holds and straightens the hose. After the pump has lowered to the required depth, it remains only to dock and snap both parts of the adapter.

Dovetail assembly
The dovetail assembly should be tough, but in order to avoid breakage of the assembled adapter, the fixing and protruding elements of the device should not be tapped

At the final stage, the safety cable is carefully brought out and fixed so as to remove part of the load from the pump, thereby reducing the risk of mechanical damage. For this, the cable is brought to the head of the well and securely fastened with metal stakes.

The option of inserting the adapter into a pipe enclosed in a conductor:

It remains only to connect the pump cable to the power supply and check the operability of the equipment. The testing phase should be approached with all responsibility.

It will help to show all the shortcomings made during the installation process. By eliminating the shortcomings at the test run stage, you will protect yourself from serious troubles in the future.

General recommendations for mounting the device

Given the inevitable vibrations that the adapter will certainly undergo during operation, and the considerable weight of the equipment, with well completion experts advise to use casing made of steel.

Installing the adapter on a PVC pipe
With limited finances, the adapter can also be installed on a plastic pipe; but keep in mind that this option will be less durable

To facilitate the installation of the adapter submersible pump, it is advisable to assemble the safety cable, cable and hose in advance in a single design.

Assembly is more convenient to perform on a flat surface in a separate clean room; and hoses and cables already fastened with couplings and rolled into a bay, to be transferred to the site near the wellhead. This approach will minimize the risk of dirt getting into the cavity of the hydraulic device.

To remove the adapter from the pipe if necessary, you can use a homemade device.

In the future, choosing a submersible pump, one should focus not only on the operating parameters of the casing string, but also make an adjustment for the dimensions of the adapter. A competent calculation will ensure free passage of the pump in the pipe without touching and damaging the protruding parts of the device.

Conclusions and useful video on the topic

Video # 1. What is better to put - a downhole adapter or caisson:

Video # 2. The installation process of the device is clearly presented in the video:

Installing an adapter for a well is an excellent alternative to a caisson for equipping a well whose depth does not exceed 50 m. Hydraulic structures of this kind are designed on average for 15-20 years of operation.

To invest extra money in their arrangement does not make sense. And by correctly installing the device made of high-quality material, you don’t have to worry that the well with the adapter will work properly for the entire life cycle.

We will be glad to hear your stories about how to equip a well without a caisson using an adapter. Perhaps you can tell visitors to the site interesting technical nuances that are not mentioned in the article. Please write comments in the block below, ask questions, discuss the topic, post a photo.

Was the article helpful?
Thanks for your feedback!
No (14)
Thanks for your feedback!
Yes (99)