Exhaust hood for the kitchen: operating principle, device, types of units

Alexey Dedyulin
Checked by a specialist: Alexey Dedyulin
Author: Elena Pykhteeva
Last update: September 2019

An essential element of any serious kitchen is an exhaust hood. Such a device is mandatory installed at industrial enterprises, but it also has a worthy place in domestic kitchen facilities.

This type of hood is extremely effective in removing air pollution from cooking. Let's look at the features of the operation of this exhaust equipment and the points that you need to pay attention to when choosing a hood in the kitchen.

How it works?

A device of this type is a powerful exhaust hood designed for efficient ventilation of air in a kitchen room. They are most often installed directly above hobs in restaurants, cafes, canteens and other catering establishments.

Such a device can be installed not only over ordinary stoves, but also over other similar equipment: grill, oven, etc.

The quality of dishes from the presence of a good extract will benefit. Umbrellas trap water vapor, particles of oil and fat, remove odors from cooking dishes. All these contaminants rise up under the influence of hot air and fall into the working cavity of the ventilation umbrella. Here, contaminated air passes through the filtration system, where it is cleaned.

Exhaust hood
An exhaust hood is a stylish and modern device that will provide effective air purification in a domestic or industrial kitchen

Then the air masses, freed from unnecessary inclusions, are returned to the kitchen room or removed through the ventilation duct, depending on the type of device.

Fatty contaminants move through a separate channel and are collected from storage cups, from which they are periodically removed.

Grease hood extractor hoods
Grease traps are special aluminum elements that are installed inside exhaust hoods. They capture particles of fat and other relatively large contaminants.

To facilitate the process of cleaning drives from fat deposits, it is recommended to pre-pour special detergent in glasses that can effectively dissolve fat.

The advantages of the “umbrella” type exhaust structures include the following:

  • the ability to use remote control;
  • high degree of automation;
  • the ability to install a suitable model in almost any area of ​​the kitchen;
  • a wide selection of diverse models made of various materials with an attractive design;
  • high level of performance.

Among the shortcomings of such equipment, first of all, increased noise generation caused by the operation of a powerful fan is noted. For the correct operation of the unit, it should be regularly serviced, i.e. acquire and timely replace carbon filters.

These elements cannot be cleaned and restored, so the cost of operating the device may be higher than expected. In addition, good equipment of this type and in itself is quite expensive.

Island umbrella
An island umbrella can be installed right in the middle of the kitchen if the size of the room allows. In a small room, such a device can be placed above the stove installed at the window

Extraction equipment in the kitchen is always necessary. Particles of fat, hot steam, soot, drops and other impurities may not be visible at first glance, but over time they form a layer of dirt on various surfaces that is not easy to remove.

In addition, the remains of gas that can get into the kitchen air, and the smell of accidentally burnt food are not good for the health of others.

According to the device, the ventilation umbrella is a steel dome-shaped case, inside of which there is a fan and a set of filtering elements. To collect relatively large particles, a special aluminum grill is designed to protect the ventilation turbine.

Industrial hood
At catering establishments, powerful exhaust hoods are mandatory for use above cooking surfaces. Similar devices are used to remove harmful fumes from other industrial plants.

An acrylic filter is usually used to remove a significant portion of the grease. In installations with recirculation, a charcoal filter is used without fail, which performs fine air purification. The spark-extinguishing grid protects the elements from overheating and possible fire.

It is especially necessary if the umbrella is installed above the device with an open flame. All filter elements must be periodically cleaned or replaced. Charcoal filters are replaced as soon as they become dirty; these elements cannot be repaired.

Some types of acrylic filters can be washed and reinstalled, but from such processing they quickly lose their shape, so the number of cleaning and recycling cycles is limited.

Dimensions of the exhaust hood
The exhaust hood must be large enough to overlap the parameters of the worktop to be processed by at least 100 mm

A fan or ventilation turbine integrated into the umbrella allows air to circulate in the right direction with the required intensity. The performance of this element provides the total power of the hood, which should be correlated with the total volume of the room in which it will be installed.

A lot of hoods and hoods provide illumination, which is very convenient. Such lamps can be used as additional lighting for the kitchen. Along with conventional incandescent lamps, halogen or diode lighting devices are built into the hoods.

The latter provide a sufficient level of illumination with a minimum consumption of electric energy and an extended service life.

Island exhaust hood
At industrial catering facilities, exhaust hoods are installed over different types of devices: stoves, grills, ovens, etc.

If the umbrella is connected to the ventilation duct of the house, it must be equipped with special valves that prevent the return of the incoming air masses into the kitchen.

Types of designs and the problem of choice

According to the type of construction, wall and island exhaust umbrellas are distinguished. The design can be exhaust or supply and exhaust. In the first case, the device only removes the exhaust air from the room, in the second - it also provides an additional influx of fresh air masses.

Types of exhaust umbrellas
An exhaust hood can either remove exhausted air masses from the room, or clean them and return to the room

When choosing a suitable umbrella, the necessary level of air exchange, the dimensions of the equipment for cooking, and the intended location for its placement should be taken into account. For industrial kitchens, it is recommended to install a model whose dimensions are 100 mm larger than the dimensions of the hob.

For the manufacture of such devices use stainless steel food grades. The device is usually equipped not only with a grease trap, but also with a carbon filter. A useful option may be the backlight. Supply and exhaust devices, as the name implies, provide not only the removal and purification of contaminated kitchen air, but also the influx of fresh air from the street.

Such umbrellas are rarely used in domestic conditions; this is a technique for professional use. Some operations require a constant supply of fresh air. Umbrellas of this type make it possible to create an extremely favorable microclimate in the working room, and adjust humidity and air temperature to an acceptable level.

The capacity of the exhaust element usually exceeds the supply air productivity in models of this type by about one third.

The advantage of using an exhaust hood
The advantage of using an exhaust hood is that it can be installed in almost any suitable place, you just need to choose the right model

Wall umbrellas are fixed not on the ceiling, but on the wall. Typically, these models are used to connect to the exhaust duct. To facilitate installation work, the hob is installed as close as possible to the ventilation duct.

In this case air duct will not be too long, which contributes to the effective movement of exhaust air into the ventilation duct.

Wall mounted hoods
Wall mounted hoods can be mounted on the wall. They are more convenient to connect to the ventilation duct of the building than island models

A short design usually does not need to create a large number of turns when using rigid plastic ducts. There should be no more than three such elbows for one ventilation umbrella. The beveled type of island umbrella is very popular, which allows you to bring the hood closer to the maximum allowable distance to the hob.

An island-type umbrella that attaches to the ceiling is considered universal. As the name implies, it is used for installation over the kitchen island, specifically over the built-in stove. The design feature is that during its installation there is no need to use the wall, the structure is attached to the ceiling.

Such devices are usually used in large kitchens, both industrial and domestic. In small areas, the use of a kitchen umbrella over the island is usually not used due to lack of free space. But such a design may be appropriate even in a small kitchen if the hob is installed near the window.

The presence of two filters allows the air to be cleaned at a sufficiently high level so that it can be returned to the kitchen.Of course, the necessary means should be used to ensure sufficient air exchange, but recirculation allows you to save in the room part of the thermal energy that was spent on cooking.

Hood with recirculation hood
To remove contaminated air using an exhaust hood, it must be connected to the ventilation duct. If this is not possible, use models with circulation and a carbon filter

Recycling is used in island hoods, since it is usually quite difficult to install such a unit next to the ventilation hatch. And how recycle hoods work, read this stuff. Some models of island umbrellas can be adjusted in height, which allows you to change the intensity of absorption of contaminated vapors depending on the situation.

If the place for installing the hood is chosen in such a way that the filtered air cannot be discharged into the ventilation duct, you will definitely have to give preference to a recirculated appliance.

When choosing an exhaust hood for the kitchen, you should choose the right unit performance. The most powerful option is suitable for kitchens up to 25 square meters. m

However, you should not choose a model with too much power reserve, since the higher the productivity, the more noise the hood makes during operation. For a small room, this can be a real disaster.

Types of exhaust hoods
Distinguish between exhaust and supply and exhaust umbrellas. The latter not only ensure the discharge of polluted air, but also make it possible for the influx of mass from the street to improve the atmosphere in the room

Acceptable is the noise level of the device in the region of 40 dB. It may be slightly higher (up to 70 dB), but you should not choose an overly noisy model, since the sound of its work can cause irritation. When choosing the type of control, the installation height of the device should be taken into account. If the hood is set high enough, the remote option can be very handy.

Such equipment is notable for its high price, so when choosing a brand, you should pay attention not only to the well-known name, but also to the warranty period, as well as the availability of service centers and warranty service conditions. Of course, the design of the device also plays an important role. Fortunately, the models of exhaust hoods are very diverse, you can always find the right option.

Features of installation and operation

It is relatively uncomplicated to install this type of exhaust equipment, but it is still better for inexperienced craftsmen to entrust the execution of these operations to professionals. If you decide to carry out the installation yourself, then you should start with a detailed study of the manufacturer's instructions.

Steel exhaust hood
Hood umbrellas are usually made of durable aluminum steel food grade. For industrial enterprises, such designs are often created to order.

After that, you need to investigate the installation site, take the necessary measurements, prepare tools, fasteners, materials, etc. An important point is the correct distance from the hob. It should be at least 60 cm for electric stoves and 70 cm for gas appliances, but not more than 85 cm.

If you need to hang the umbrella higher, you should choose a more productive device to compensate for the difference in height. To install an exhaust ventilation hood, you will need tools that are usually in the arsenal of any experienced craftsman: tape measure and the building level for marking a screwdriver, drill, hammer, etc.

Depending on the type of appliance, you will need to either simply hang it above the stove or connect it to the ventilation duct with an air duct. As a duct, either a metal corrugated sleeve or rigid plastic structures are used.

The corrugation can be bent appropriately, and to make a knee out of plastic, special adapters should be used to ensure a tight connection of individual sections of the duct.

If the power cord is not long enough, you need to install an additional outlet near the device. You need to make sure that the appliance has the necessary grounding.

Correct installation of a ventilation umbrella is only half the battle. For the device to work efficiently, it is necessary to organize its work. Detailed information on such matters can be found in the operating instructions supplied with each device.

Regular cleaning is essential. internal filters. For example, aluminum grilles should be washed with special detergents. A good result is given by the use of funds that can be found in any kitchen: acetic acid, diluted by a third with water, a saturated solution of ordinary laundry soap or a pasty mixture of water with baking soda.

Aluminum trellised grease traps
The aluminum grating grease traps of the exhaust hoods should be regularly cleaned of contaminants accumulated on them, so that the device operates correctly and efficiently.

These recipes are useful to those who suffer from intolerance to chemicals. Lattices should be cleaned from accumulations of grease and dirt at least once every three months.

Replacing carbon filters is usually done in the following order:

  • disconnection of the device from power supply;
  • dismantling of aluminum grilles;
  • removing the used filter;
  • installation of a new filter element;
  • installation of aluminum grilles;
  • connecting and checking the operation of the device.

At the time of installation of a new filter, a characteristic click should sound. If, after replacing the filter, unusual sounds appear in the operation of the exhaust hood or it starts to work noisier, the filter may not be installed correctly, the work should be redone.

If cleaning and replacing the filters of the ventilation umbrella is not carried out in a timely manner, the quality of the device may deteriorate significantly.

Charcoal filters in exhaust hoods
Carbon filters are needed in exhaust hoods with circulation, they perform fine air cleaning and need regular replacement

Removable filters and glasses for collecting fat in models of umbrellas that are used in catering establishments should be cleaned daily in accordance with the instructions. It is also necessary to constantly clean the outside of the hood housing. It is recommended to remove and soak some elements in special cleaning solutions.

At the end of cleaning, they are thoroughly rinsed. Another element that needs periodic cleaning is the duct. It is necessary to remove the connecting elements and remove deposits from the inner surface of the structure.

Corrugated items often need such cleaning than smooth plastic channels. Some industrial models of kitchen umbrellas are equipped with an integrated cleaning system, but such expensive units are usually not used in everyday life.

Conclusions and useful video on the topic

This video shows the principle of operation of such structures:

Recommendations for increasing the efficiency of ventilation umbrellas are explained in this video:

An exhaust hood can ensure proper air exchange, both in ordinary and industrial kitchens. Proper installation and regular maintenance will ensure long and uninterrupted operation of such a device.

Perhaps you recently purchased a new model of an exhaust hood for a kitchen and can share your impressions of its work? Please leave your comments, share experiences and valuable tips in the block below.

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Visitors Comments
  1. Alexandra

    In my sad experience, it is better not to save on exhaust hoods! I had two island ones. The first was taken solely because of the low price, there was no sense in it, it hummed so that the walls were shaking, moreover, it did not protect the ceiling and walls from a yellow coating and burning for a percent. After 2 years of torment, he was replaced by an expensive “branded” one - this is heaven and earth. Absorbs unpleasant odors during cooking, does not allow evaporating fat to settle and soar in space. The main thing is not to spare money, the thing is necessary.

    • The same story! A cheap umbrella will make noise. And it’s okay if only this, I would have suffered, but he doesn’t protect against raids either. Moreover, cheapness is a relative concept, it can cost 10 thousand and still work poorly. Must buy in a company store, and that the products were from a well-known company. It is expensive, but it copes with its task at 100 and does not exceed 40 decibels in terms of noise.

  2. Good afternoon. Based on what norms and rules was this article created? If there are links to material, please provide.

    • Expert
      Alexey Dedyulin

      Hello. This article is positioned as a material with practical advice, and not as a technical instruction. And, therefore, there was no need to refer to standards and SNiPs.

      First of all, I can note that at the moment, exhaust hoods according to the laws of the Russian Federation are not subject to mandatory certification, so manufacturers use their methods in the calculations. This means that this ventilation equipment is selected for specific stoves or stoves, and the calculation rules are reduced to practical operating time and standards.

      And again, in this case, there are recommendations, not requirements and standards. For example, recommendations of ABOK 7.3-2007 “Ventilation of hot shops of catering enterprises”. This is a booklet with 20 pages, from it you can find out all the necessary information that interests you.

  3. Hello. I want to put a restaurant-type exhaust hood in my apartment. Question - which motor / fan to choose? Need performance from 1000 cubic meters per hour and an acceptable level of noise.

    There are such fans on the market, but it’s not entirely clear how they will work with hot air from the hood. In addition, how to understand - is it necessary to install the fan directly at the exhaust hood or can it be closer to the ventilation duct?

    • Expert
      Alexey Dedyulin

      Hello, Ilya. Install the fan in close proximity to the exhaust hood is not worth it. I will attach for you a photo of the installation of the exhaust hood and the location of the fan, this will be relevant for you.

      Just do not allow the fan power to be reduced due to an excessively narrow ventilation duct at the point where it is connected to the umbrella itself. I noticed that even many masters specializing in the installation of household ventilation equipment now make such a banal mistake.

      As for operating temperatures, industrial fans are not afraid of hot air. I can recommend some good models:

      - DOSPEL WK 200 (industrial channel centrifugal);
      - Fan channel Soler & Palau TD-500/150.

      The latter is more expensive, about 200+ dollars, the price of the first is about 150 dollars. Soler & Palau has a fairly low noise level.

      Attached photos: