Ventilation deflector: device, varieties, installation rules

Alexey Dedyulin
Checked by a specialist: Alexey Dedyulin
Author: Oksana Chubukina
Last update: August 2019

A properly designed room ventilation system is the key to a healthy microclimate. One of the priority conditions for natural air circulation is the presence of traction. To normalize the pressure, a ventilation deflector is often used - the device enhances the intake from the ventilation duct due to the wind pressure.

Despite the simplicity of design and affordable price, such a cap significantly increases traction. The only difficulty is choosing the best option among the variety of offers.

We will help you sort this out. The article provides a detailed overview of the devices and principles of operation of various deflectors, provides practical recommendations for the selection and installation of caps.

To make it easier for you to decide on a model and understand the order of installation of the air “driver”, we have prepared a thematic photo and video selection.

The main tasks of the “ventilation hood”

Efficiency ventilation systems with the natural impulse of air is largely determined by atmospheric conditions. Air flows circulate due to the lifting force arising due to the temperature difference inside and outside the room.

The wind also “corrects” the ventilation operation - it can both accelerate and impede natural air exchange.

Natural ventilation
In the summer, when the temperature conditions at home and on the street equalize, the pressure drop and draft tends to zero - natural ventilation malfunctions. Air circulation is reduced and, in some cases, draft tipping occurs.

Partially reduce the influence of weather factors, direct them to the benefit of the functioning of the ventilation system and increase air speed allows installation of a deflector. A module that resembles a cap is mounted at the top of the exhaust duct.

The deflector solves two main tasks:

  1. Protects the mine from clogging and bird entry.
  2. Minimizes the negative impact of precipitation on ventilation equipment.
  3. It activates and enhances traction, generating and redirecting wind flows - the efficiency of the ventilation system increases by 15-20%. The baffle reduces the likelihood of occurrence reverse thrust.

Umbrella design is used to increase traction in the chimney. Besides, chimney deflector additionally plays the role of a spark arrester.

Open deflector
The ventilation hood loses efficiency when the wind blows from below - the air stream hits the visor and interferes with the operation of the hood. The solution to the problem is the installation of a deflector with two cones

The scheme of the device and the principle of operation of the deflector

To get an accurate idea of ​​what a deflector is and how it functions, let’s take a look at a typical circuit of its device.

The main parts of the ventilation nozzle:

  1. Diffuser - base in the form of a truncated cone. The lower part of the cylindrical flask is mounted on the top of the ventilation duct discharged through the roof. It is in the diffuser that the airflow slows down and the pressure rises.
  2. Umbrella - The upper protective cap attached to the diffuser struts. The element prevents debris from entering the ventilation duct.
  3. Housing - ring or shell. The visible part of the deflector, connected to the diffuser by two or three brackets. The plane of the body cuts through the air flow and creates a region of reduced pressure inside the cylinder.

In some versions, a mesh is installed to detain small debris. The filter insert weakens the draft somewhat.

Deflector circuit
Deflector design with inlet pipe: 1 - head, 2 - diffuser, 3 - ring, 4 - foot brackets, 5 - cap, 6 - conical shield, d - diameter

The action of the ventilation nozzle is based on the Bernoulli effect - the relationship between pressure and the flow velocity of the air flow in the channel. During acceleration, provoked by the narrowing of the duct, the pressure in the system drops, forming a vacuum in the pipeline.

Principle of operation:

  1. The baffle catches the wind.
  2. Air masses rush into the diffuser, branch and provoke a decrease in pressure at the top of the ventilation duct.
  3. Exhausted air from the room rushes into the discharged void.

With the right choice and installation of the deflector at the end of the exhaust duct, the pressure difference increases, and accordingly, the air exchange rate increases.

Wind nozzle classification

Despite the same purpose, exhaust hoods differ from each other.

Determining the optimal device model, it is necessary to evaluate:

  • material of manufacture;
  • principle of operation;
  • design features.

Production material. The production uses aluminum, stainless steel, galvanization, copper, plastic and ceramics.

The best solution from the point of view of the balance “cost / quality” are steel and aluminum products. Copper deflectors are rarely used due to the high cost.

Plastic deflector
Plastic models differ from their counterparts at a lower price, a variety of colors and shapes. Polymer disadvantages: high temperature susceptibility and limited service life

The symbiosis of strength and decorativeness - combined metal caps covered with plastic.

Principle of operation. Based on the functional features, ventilation devices are divided into 4 groups.

Deflector Types:

  • static nozzles;
  • rotary deflectors;
  • static installations with an ejection fan;
  • models with a rotary housing.

The first group includes models of the traditional type. Static deflectors are characterized by simplicity of design and the possibility of self-assembly. Valves are mounted on exhaust shafts of apartment and industrial aeration ducts.

The second group (rotary deflectors) is equipped with a system of rotating blades. The complex mechanism consists of an active head and a static base.

Rotary deflector
Gusts of wind cause the paddle drum to rotate. During operation, a vacuum is created at the mouth of the mine, which prevents the appearance of reverse thrust

Static exhaust baffle with an ejection fan - modern technology. A fixed hood is installed at the end of the ventilation duct; a low-pressure axial fan is mounted directly under it inside the shaft.

Deflector with fan
The device of the static-rotational model: 1 - static deflector, 2 - fan, 3 - pressure sensor, 4 - heat-insulated bulb, 5 - noise-absorbing ventilation duct, 6 - drainage, 7 - false ceiling

Under normal environmental conditions, the system functions as a traditional static deflector. As the wind and thermal pressure decreases, the sensor is triggered - the axial fan is turned on and the draft is normalized.

An interesting development that deserves attention is an ejection-type deflector with a rotary body. A rotating cap is mounted above the shaft.

The model consists of horizontal and vertical pipes, which are interconnected by a swivel mechanism. At the top of the deflector there is a partition - a weather vane.

Rotary deflector
The horizontal pipe turns in the direction of the wind. Streams rush into the inner part and create a vacuum - the thrust at the mouth of the mine increases

Design Features. Models with the same principle of inducing natural ventilation have some differences in the device.

Deflectors are open or closed, square or round, with one cap or several conical umbrellas. The characteristics of the most popular and effective modifications are described below.

Browse Popular Models

In practice, the following types have proven themselves well: Grigorovich, Volper, TsAGI, double and H-shaped deflector, rotary weather vane of the “Sachet” or “Hood” type.

Types of deflectors
The choice of "wind nozzle" is based on the efficiency, cost of the deflector and the climatic conditions of the area. Some models are available for self-assembly and installation.

View # 1 - Grigorovich's classic cap

The most common option used in ventilation and smoke exhaust systems.Because of its simplicity and accessibility, the Grigorovich deflector holds a leading position among analogues.

The device is represented by a pair of umbrellas connected in a single "plate".

The cap is mounted on circular pipelines or mounted through an adapter plate on rectangular and square shafts.

Grigorovich deflector
Basic equipment: 1 - a diffuser in the form of a narrowed cone, 2 - a protective umbrella, 3 - a reverse hood. Fixing spacers combine nozzle elements

Thanks to the design, double ejection of air is carried out - in the direction of the expanded part of the diffuser and in the direction of the return hood.

The flow rate under the lower cone increases due to the narrowing of the channel section, as a result, the pressure difference increases.

View # 2 - TsAGI universal nozzle

The ventilation hood, designed by the Aerohydrodynamic Institute, enhances traction due to wind pressure and pressure differences at different heights.

The nozzle is complemented by a cylindrical screen, inside of which a prototype of a traditional deflector is placed.

TsAGI deflector
An external shell prevents overturning of natural ventilation even in large ducts. The permissible diameter of the exhaust shaft is 100-1250 mm. Designations in the figure: a - top view, b - side view, D - diameter, H - device height

Distinctive features:

  • permissible bandage, rack, flange and nipple connection with the duct, depending on the shape of the neck of the mine;
  • the ability to transport air, chemically non-aggressive environment (steel models withstand temperatures up to +800 ° C);
  • in winter, ice may form on the inner walls of the cylinder, which can block the passage section.

The deflector is susceptible to wind currents - in calm weather it creates traction resistance.

View # 3 - Astato Static Dynamic Cap

Stato-mechanical deflector - development of a French company Astato. The device enhances the exhaust draft of the natural ventilation system due to wind and fan.

The nozzle is mounted on houses of any number of floors, reconstructed and new buildings.

Astato Deflector
In passive mode, the vacuum level created by Astato is the sum of the wind and gravity pressures. This value corresponds to the operation of a static deflector.

After turning on the electric motor, the ventilation duct aerodynamics is maintained, the degree of vacuum is the total value of the fan head and pressure.

Deflector Characteristics:

  1. Installation methods. Nipple connection for round ventilation ducts, through an adapter - for a group of ducts or shafts of rectangular cross section.
  2. Control modes. Manual control and automatic are permissible - by means of a pressure sensor, time switch.
  3. Production material - aluminum.
  4. The lineup. The Astato deflector is presented in six positions, with a nominal diameter of 16-50 cm.

Series Modifications DYN-Astato equipped with a two-speed fan, the cost of products - 1300-4000 cu depending on the dimensions of the deflector.

View # 4 - deflector series DS

The open-type static nozzle DS looks like an Astato deflector. But, unlike the French cap, the DS series models do not have moving parts.The cap has three conical shaped discs.

DS Series Deflector
Umbrellas for this type of deflector are truncated and located opposite each other, forming a channel by the type of Venturi nozzle. The diameter of the central hole of the lower disk corresponds to the cross section of the pipe. Brackets hold the mesh

The highest speed of wind turbulence is observed in the truncated channel of the hood - above the ventilation pipe. The pressure difference inside the deflector and remotely from it causes an additional vacuum that increases traction.

Features of the DS series model:

  • the deflector is compatible with forced means of inducing air exchange - fans;
  • a wind speed of 5-10 m / s increases traction by 10-40 Pa - the data are relevant at a relative humidity of 50 °, air temperature +25 ° C and a deviation of the wind flow up to 30 ° from the horizontal plane.

Deflectors are available in 13 sizes. Designation of ventilation hoods: DS - ***where *** - inner diameter in mm. The minimum dimensions are the model DS-100, the maximum - DS-900.

View # 5 - rotary turbine or turbo deflector

The dynamic deflector consists of a fixed base and a rotating turbine head.

The elements of the spherical cap are made of light, thin metal, which allows the drum with blades to be put into operation with a slight wind - from 0.5 m / s.

Active turbo deflector
The head rotates in one direction of the wind vector. “Partial vacuum” is observed under the hood - the air at the top of the ventilation duct is rarefied, the probability of overturning ventilation is minimized (+)

Advantages of a turbo deflector:

  • efficiency work 2-4 times higher than static models;
  • room protection from overheating in the summer and lowering the costs of air conditioning in the heat;
  • aesthetic appearance - the deflector head is made in the form of an elegant spherical cap;
  • condensation prevention inside the roof by lowering the temperature in hot weather;
  • profitability of work - The active deflector operates without electricity.

The turbo deflector draws excess heat, moisture, dust, vapors and harmful gases from the building and the roof space from the mine, thereby increasing the life of the structural elements of the house.

The disadvantage of an active deflector is zero productivity in calm weather.

Dimensions of the thermal deflector
Labeling of Aerotech products is presented as TV-160, etc. The digital index indicates the diameter of the cross section of the fixed base of the hood

Dynamic nozzles are available wide assortment. Demand is for the goods of companies: Aerotech (Russia), Turbovent (Ukraine), Rotowent (Poland) and Turbomax (Belarus).

View # 6 - rotary weather vane type "hood"

Swivel hood type "hood" or "net" - a semicircular rotating catcher of air flow, mounted on a rod.

Its curved visors are fastened to the bearing assembly. At the top of the hull is a weather vane, allowing the structure to follow the direction of the wind.

Rotary baffle-vane
Device diagram: 1 - working case, 2 - baffles, 3 - rotary shaft, 4 - bearings, 5 - sealed cup, 6 - mounting ring, 7 - weather vane

The principle of operation of the ventilation "hood":

  1. Under the pressure of the wind, the weather vane turns, being located along the line of air flow.
  2. Jets of air pass through the space between the curved visors.
  3. Streams change the vector and rush up.
  4. In this zone, according to the postulates of aerodynamics, the speed of air movement increases, and the pressure drops - a deep vacuum is formed.
  5. The draft from the ventilation shaft increases, providing additional exhaust air extraction.

A weather vane-deflector is more difficult for independent manufacture than static models. The nozzle is operational with a wind load of up to 0.8 kPa (not more than 800 kgf / sq.m).

View # 7 - H-type module

The H-shaped deflector is preferably mounted on manufacturing enterprises. Its purpose is to increase traction in the ventilation and chimney.

H-shaped deflector
The wind enters the module’s vertical jumpers and sucks the exhaust air through the horizontal channels of the deflector, thereby increasing traction in the pipeline

The design does not require the use of a visor, since the top of the duct is protected by a horizontal element.

The main advantage of the H-shaped hood is its operability with strong gusts of wind. For operation, the deflector is able to use the force of wind flows directed from the bottom up.

Nuances of mounting wind-driven hoods

When installing the deflector should be guided by the norms of SNiP.

The focus is on the height of the ventilation pipe and hood:

  • from 500 mm above the roof parapet / ridge if the duct is 1.5 m or less from the top of the roof;
  • flush with the ridge or higher, if the distance from the ventilation duct to the parapet is 1.5-3 m;
  • not lower than the deviation line drawn at an angle of 10 ° from the ridge down, provided the distance of the pipe is more than 3 m.

On a flat roof, the deflector is installed at a height of 50 cm and above.

Deflector installation
When placing the ventilation shaft near the chimney, the same height of the ducts must be observed. If these requirements are neglected, the stove smoke can enter the room

Additional installation nuances:

  • installation in the field of aerodynamic shadow of neighboring buildings is unacceptable;
  • the deflector is located in the free-blowing zone, optimally if the hood is the highest part of the roof.

The installation of a nozzle of circular cross section on a square duct is carried out through a transition pipe.

Requirements and installation methods of the deflector on the boiler chimney are described in this article.

Conclusions and useful video on the topic

Comparison of the characteristics of a rotary turbine and TsAGI model:

The principle of operation of the rotary vane-deflector:

Technology for installing a turbo deflector on a flat roof:

Such a simple device as a deflector can solve the common problem of natural ventilation - the lack of exhaust draft.

In addition to increasing the efficiency of air circulation, the hood has a protective role, preventing the ventilation duct from clogging with debris.

Have experience in installing and operating a ventilation deflector? Or have questions about the topic? Please share your opinion and leave comments. The feedback box is located below.

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Visitors Comments
  1. A good ventilation deflector is not a guarantee of a good exhaust. As, however, the budget option does not mean at all that it will work poorly. We had an Aerotec turbo-deflector installed, because the area of ​​the house is large, etc. It was already installed when we moved into a new house. Autumn, winter defended and worked without complaints, completely coping with its mission. In the spring, after the snow melted during the showers, the wall flowed.

    They tried for a long time to determine the cause of the leak. But it turned out that everything is simple. Roofers incorrectly completed the adjoining of the roof to the pipes. This applies to both the deflector pipe and the chimney pipe, which has not yet flowed. However, for preventive purposes, it was also redone. Good fitters to all!

    • Vasya

      Today, roofers for the most part do not know how to make a passage through the roof. They will learn to twist the screws with a screwdriver and think that you can safely take on the roof. A real tinsmith will do everything for you without using sealants. There will be no leak.

  2. I want to share a little experience installing a baffle in the production of dry mixes. He made a choice for a very long time, at first in the construction market (Mill) in Moscow he acquired, according to the recommendation of the seller of ventilation equipment, a deflector of the Cheboksary company Turbodeflector.

    He brought it to production, prepared a seat instead of the old tsag and started installation. People, I never met such disgusting quality of products! The turbo deflector is not centered - I tried to untwist it, so it does not rotate for a long time, but it is useless, apparently a bad bearing! I packed it back and returned it to the seller g ...!

    Because my seat is ready, proceeded to a thorough search for another deflector, stumbled upon the Moscow company VentDeflector. Checked in advance at the warehouse, everything seems to be fine, proceeded to installation. I want to note the quality compared to the Turbo deflector - ideal, perfectly centered, rotates constantly even with the slightest wind! Because the production is quite dusty, after installation it was noticeable that there was less dust, especially in windy weather it is noticeable how the cloud rises and pulls into the street from the deflector! I was very worried that it would not work for a long time and become clogged with dust, but now a year has passed and everything is working well.

    • Expert
      Alexey Dedyulin

      Hello Igor. Thank you for sharing your personal experience regarding ventilation deflectors. Yes, manufacturers have different quality materials and assemblies, so ordering such equipment through online stores is quite risky. Poor assembly can only be detected during installation.

      In fact, the best solution is to order the manufacture of a ventilation deflector from specialists in your city. Thus, you can pre-coordinate all the details and specifications in order to fit the equipment for installation as accurately as possible.

      Personally, I very rarely buy factory-made deflectors; for installation, customers use equipment manufactured by verified private traders. And as practice shows, it is much more reliable than the factory one. I enclose a photo of the deflector in the manufacturing process.

      Attached photos: