Ventilation control panel: device, purpose + how to assemble
Industrial buildings, public institutions and residential buildings are equipped with air conditioning and ventilation networks that are complex in design. To organize the operation of a system that combines many technical devices, use the ventilation control panel - SCHUV.
We will tell you how to assemble a shield that allows you to control the ventilation system and set the optimal mode for work or leisure. In the article we presented, the components are listed, the features of their connection are described. Taking into account our recommendations will help to competently automate the start and stop of equipment.
The content of the article:
Appointment of the shield ventilation control
If you need to enable or configure a household split-system or devices supply ventilationfixed in the ventilation duct opening, no control nodes are required - each device is manually controlled or from a remote control.
But if the length of the networks is large, and the devices are installed in inaccessible places: in mines, on the roof or in the attic, in specially designed niches inside the walls, then there is a need to install a remote control unit.
Modern SCHUVs are panels with indicator control devices or metal cabinets that are installed on the floor or suspended from the wall. To protect the internal filling, swing doors are provided, which are locked. In addition to the acronym SHUV, you can meet SHUV (cabinet).
The main functions of SCHUV:
- control over equipment included in the ventilation and air conditioning systems;
- protection of units from the occurrence of overheating, incorrect installation and connection, short circuit;
- adjustment of critical equipment parameters, such as performance or power;
- programming the operation of the entire system or individual units for a given time period - day, week, month;
- providing an indication that facilitates monitoring and adjustment;
- maintaining a certain temperature in various rooms, the ability to quickly change its parameters;
- control over the inner walls of the ducts and the degree of contamination of the filters;
- prevention of malfunctioning of seasonally dependent equipment, for example, water heaters, which may freeze at too low a temperature.
The installation of an electrical switchboard at the enterprise or in a residential building allows maintenance personnel to monitor the operation of the equipment from one place and quickly respond to breakdowns and stops of individual devices. Devices that regulate fire extinguishing and partially heating devices can also be placed in the same cabinet.
In the event of an emergency, for example, a fire in one of the rooms, the ventilation equipment stops automatically or manually - from the control panel.
Features of the ShchUV device
Installation and assembly of control panels is carried out in accordance with the rules and regulations dictated by state documents, such as GOST R 51321.1. Cabinets for pumps and electricians, ventilation panels and air conditioning systems are mounted in corridors, utility rooms or in specially designated rooms - switchboards.
If the building has the capabilities, then all control units, including ventilation and fire, are installed in control rooms.
Manufacturers of electrical equipment offer many configurations that differ in size, function, degree of protection and level of programming. The simplest modifications are designed to serve private residential real estate, complex - enterprises and public buildings.
Requirements for the configuration of control panels
When choosing SHUV they are guided by the sizes of a working area, an opportunity of installation of the necessary devices, ergonomics and safety. The last point concerns both the installers themselves, regularly servicing the network, and people who may be nearby.
The main requirements for ШУВ and ЩУВ are as follows:
- the shield must accommodate all ventilation and air conditioning controls;
- important nodes must be provided with indicators, light, digital or connected to a PC;
- devices responsible for the most significant equipment should have dual control - automatic and manual.
All appliances are neatly placed on the same plane. The package should be as simple and easy to understand. If the ventilation shield is assembled in accordance with all the rules, then, if necessary, even a person who is not knowledgeable in electrics will be able to turn off emergency devices.
The content and functionality of the shields may vary. For example, for some systems, a frequency converter is necessary, while others do without it. The most convenient for use are cabinets and panels with automation and remote controls.
Work item overview
Structurally, ШУВ is a rectangular plastic or metal case with the required protection class IP 45. If operating conditions are associated with increased risk, the protection class is higher.
Inside the case are placed such devices as a power supply, controller, converters.Several circuit breakers are responsible for individual devices: heaters, recuperators, fans, cooling units, etc.
A mandatory element is a manual control panel. An alarm unit is also needed, which is triggered in an emergency and produces an alert with light or sound signals.
Controls also include sensors. This is a kind of receptor that collects various information about the state of the system and its environment.
They take the temperature of the air and the devices themselves, the degree of gas concentration or contamination of the system elements, measure the speed of air movement, etc. The received data is sent to automatic controllers, and the operation of the system elements is adjusted.
By function, the sensors are divided into the following types:
- pressure, etc.
Temperature can be either digital or analog. A signal of a sharp increase or decrease in indoor temperature can cause the system to switch to another mode.
Humidity sensors operate according to the same principle. How does the movement of air masses inside ventilation ducts can be recognized thanks to speed and pressure sensors. At the installation site, the sensors are divided into internal and external. The former take data indoors, the latter, which is also called atmospheric or street, outside the buildings.
Some sensors are fixed on the surface of the parts that need to be controlled. They take the parameters of the devices themselves, for example, the temperature of the winding, speed of rotation, etc.
Installation of sensors is accompanied by careful selection. On the one hand, the more information, the more accurately the system works, but on the other hand, the operation and maintenance of the network becomes costly in terms of energy consumption.
Controllers work in conjunction with sensors. These are the devices that receive information and process it in automatic mode. They can be called intermediaries, since then the signal is transmitted to actuators: air flow switches, fans, refrigeration units, air heaters.
Particularly popular are controllers of a universal type, which are simultaneously capable of processing information coming from various systems: ventilation, heating, etc.
Recommendations for the assembly of ШУВ
Installation and testing of the switchgear must be carried out by specialists with the appropriate qualifications; it is not only not recommended but also prohibited to mount and connect elements inside the switchboard or cabinet.
Cases are not made with their own hands, but purchased ready-made or ordered taking into account the specifics of the ventilation system. A set of devices is supplied with the case: circuit breakers, controllers, power supplies, switches, protection elements and wires.
It is often found that the set of devices and parts is not fully equipped - there are not enough wires or circuit breakers. When selecting spare parts, it is necessary to maintain compliance with technical specifications (for example, the cross-section of wires or the current strength of the machine).
Before ordering, it is necessary to make a list of all devices that are included in the ventilation system, as well as express wishes regarding the switching of operating modes, the type of controller, the presence of certain sensors. In some SCHWs, instead of controllers, relays are installed.
An example of SCHUV is a sample with the following technical characteristics:
- nom. frequency - 50 Hz;
- voltage - 380 V;
- voltage of the connected fan - 220 V;
- engine power - 22 kW;
- protection level - IP65;
- dimensions - 400x800x180 mm;
- service life - 10 years.
Ready-made models are marked with legend, which contains information about the modification and its size, degree of protection, type of climate performance, TU or GOST number. In the latter case, manufacturers are guided by GOST 14254 and GOST 15150.
The benefits of professional installation
According to the rules, installation and maintenance ventilation systems, as well as SchUV, specialists with engineering education should be engaged. They are fully responsible for the incorrect selection, installation, connection of devices, as well as for the maintenance of technical devices in improper or emergency condition.
In order to correctly determine the filling of the shield or cabinet, the installers make full monitoring of the ventilation network.
Then you need to do the following:
- analyze the load;
- choose the optimal scheme;
- determine the modes of operation of devices in order to increase efficiency;
- pick up equipment.
The assembly itself takes a little time: all the devices are alternately mounted in several rows, the wires are carefully connected to the terminal blocks and laid along the lines with organized bundles, then brought out.
Professional installers have experience in the installation and operation of the control panel, so they are unlikely to make a mistake with the choice of model and the nuances of connecting devices. In addition, they are well versed in circuits. apartment ventilation systems and country houses and can quickly determine if there are errors in the drawing.
If you fail to figure out and connect the devices in time according to an illiterate scheme — and this also happens — you can create an emergency.
The sale and sale of panels and cabinets is handled by many companies that manufacture or sell ventilation, refrigeration and heating equipment. For example, in Moscow, this can be done in the companies Ruklimat, Roven, AV-Avtomatika, Galvent, etc.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
How the SHUVs look in assembled form, which is part of the “filling”, how the devices are mounted and the wires are connected, can be seen in the videos below.
Phased assembly and installation options:
Video review - an example of an assembly of a ШУВ with a heater:
Automation of a ventilation system or any other system is a responsible and expensive process. If the equipment is incorrectly selected or assembled, an accident may result in people being hurt, for example, in a chemical plant.
At a minimum, equipment that is also expensive will fail. For these reasons, the installation of SCHUV from the initial stage of design to the end should be done exclusively by specialists.
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