Supply ventilation in the apartment: options for organizing air exchange

Alexey Dedyulin
Checked by a specialist: Alexey Dedyulin
Author: Oksana Chubukina
Last update: March 2019

Properly organized ventilation in the apartment is the basis of a comfortable microclimate in the living room. Very often, natural air exchange does not provide a sufficient supply of fresh air and one has to look for alternative ways to improve the supply ventilation.

We will tell you all about the existing options for organizing air exchange, help you choose the best method. The presented article describes in detail the simplest versions of devices for improving ventilation and complex technical systems. Based on our recommendations, you will significantly improve your living conditions.

Air exchange is the key to a healthy microclimate

For normal operation of the apartment, a single air exchange per hour is sufficient. The implementation of this norm is ensured by laying ventilation ducts of natural extraction.

The intake of fresh air during unorganized air exchange is carried out through leaks of window frames, slotted holes in door structures, window leaves and vapor-permeable wall material.

After installing sealed double-glazed windows, the ventilation scheme fails - the channel for supplying air to the apartment is blocked, the pressure difference is reduced and the exhaust fumes stagnate in the room.

Natural ventilation scheme
Scheme of natural circulation: 1 - air flow through the slots of the window frames, 2 - movement of the air flow through the gaps of the threshold, 3 - removal of exhaust air through ventilation ducts. Natural circulation is based on the difference in temperature and pressure inside and outside the building

Many residents of apartments face negative factors that indicate problems with the ventilation system:

  1. Deterioration in air quality. At home there is a lack of oxygen, due to an excess of carbon dioxide, the air becomes stale. The “heavy” atmosphere causes discomfort, headaches and fatigue.
  2. Stagnation of unpleasant odors. In a "canned" apartment, the aromas accompanying human life are long held. Exhaust appliances in the kitchen or in the bathroom cease to function fully.
  3. High humidity. A clear sign of the problem is condensation on the windows and wet corners on the walls. Subsequently, black dots - the first manifestations of mold - can be found on surfaces. In such conditions, the decoration of the room is saturated with moisture and gradually destroyed.

If time does not take care of unhindered and regular supply of street air, then the likelihood of allergic and viral diseases increases.

Air pollution
A non-renewable musty atmosphere stimulates the development of pathogenic fungi, parasite mites and bacteria. Elderly people and young children react very quickly to air deterioration.

Restoring the intensity of air flow solves these problems.

Regardless of the method selected supply ventilation, it is necessary to provide the following air exchange standards per one living:

  • a bedroom, a children's room and a living room - 30 m3 / h;
  • kitchen - 60-90 cubic meters / h;
  • Bathroom - 25-50 cubic meters / h.

The air supply requirements for the kitchen depend on the type of stove installed. The exact standards for the bathroom are determined on the basis of the joint or separate use of the toilet and the bathroom.

Air exchange rates
The parameters are relevant if the maximum concentration of harmful components in the atmosphere does not exceed the established standard indicators for settlements

If the room is not operated for permanent housing, then the minimum air exchange rate for residential and non-residential rooms is reduced by 0.2 h-1 and 0.5 h-1, respectively.

Complete information on settlements for the device and modernization of ventilation is given in this article. We recommend that you familiarize yourself with useful information.

Ways to increase the efficiency of air inlets

Various methods aimed at improving the efficiency of supply ventilation are divided into two main categories:

  • measures that increase air flow without pressure devices;
  • use of forced air systems.

The first group includes: manual or automatic ventilation, installation of a window or wall valve.

Manual ventilation. Opening the window for 15 minutes with a frequency of 3 hours. It is almost impossible to put the method into practice - there is no time or no one to constantly open and close the window. An alternative is to open the sash in micro-ventilation mode.

Micro-ventilation mode
The disadvantage of this method is that dust from the street and noise penetrate the apartment through a gap in the apartment. In winter, with micro-ventilation, the room gradually cools.

Automatic airing. A servo drive is installed on the window flap. The device is programmed to open the transom at specified intervals or is equipped with a weather sensor.

An “intelligent” mechanism reacts to changes in humidity and changes in the atmosphere - during rain, strong wind or snow, the sensor will trigger and the window will close on its own.

Automatic airing
It is possible to connect an automation electric drive to a general fire safety system. In case of smoke in the room, the drive will work and the sash will open

The automatic ventilation method has the same disadvantages as the manual method.

Window and wall valve. Overhead and built-in inlets perform the same function - open access to fresh air flows into the room. Varieties of valves differ in their characteristics and installation technology.

Supply valve
Wall models of valves are more productive, it is advisable to use them in spacious rooms. Window storages are suitable for compact rooms

Installation wall unit more complicated than installing the air intake on the window sash, as it requires drilling a through hole through the supporting structural element of the building. Products for windows are cheaper than wall analogues.

Non-channel devices for the forced flow of air jets:

  1. Ventilators. In fact, this is the same wall valve only with a built-in fan. The intake of fresh air does not depend on the external parameters of the atmosphere (temperature, pressure), but is determined solely by the performance of the fan.
  2. Breathers. Unlike ventilators, the installation provides high-quality multi-stage filtration. An additional plus is the availability of climate control. The user sets a comfortable temperature, and the “smart” device automatically heats the air.
  3. Air conditioners with optional air supply. Multifunctional two-unit split complexes with a mixture of air from the outside are equipped with an air duct connecting both buildings, as well as an air mass filtration system.

The listed devices are mounted without laying an air duct and work to supply air to one room. For a comprehensive restoration of the supply function of ventilation in several rooms at once, channel systems are used.

Duct installation
Air ducts must be taken care of even at the repair stage. Otherwise, you will have to dismantle the finish or create a false box for laying ventilation ducts

Features of ducted supply systems:

  • high performance;
  • the possibility of heating the air;
  • management automation;
  • sufficient sound insulation;
  • the high cost of component parts;
  • complexity of installation.

Duct ventilation is rarely installed in apartments. Priority areas of application: offices, cottages and public premises.

You will learn how to check the performance of wall and window ventilation valves by reading next article.

Budget options for restoring air exchange

Wall and window valves do not have a fan.The air flow is due to the difference between street and "home" pressure. A prerequisite for the performance of overhead air inlets is good exhaust ventilation.

Features of different types of window valves

The design of all window climate devices is very simple. Standard valve consists of an air intake, a telescopic channel and an indoor unit.

The air intake is mounted outside the frame. The external unit is equipped with a visor and grille, which prevents insects from getting inside. The telescopic channel crashes into the frame, forming a through slot for the unhindered flow of the air stream.

Window valve device
The indoor unit is mounted on the side of the room. Some models of air inlets are equipped with a filter and a valve that regulates the throughput of the device

Based on the design and installation method, the following climate devices are distinguished:

  • slotted;
  • folded;
  • waybills.

Slotted models. The throughput of the unit reaches 20 cubic meters per hour - air mass flows through a micro-hole up to 1.6 cm high and up to 4 cm wide. The device consists of two blocks, which complicates its installation - window frame milling is required .

Folded valves. This is the most affordable and easiest way to ventilate a room. The air flow through the slots in the narthex. The main plus of the models is the ability to install on an operated window without milling a groove.

Additional advantages of rebate models include: low cost, preservation of sound-absorbing and heat-retaining properties of PVC glass and the possibility of automation.

Window valve
The valve capacity does not exceed 5 cubic meters / h. To ensure a larger volume of air supply, several valves can be installed on one window

Overhead climate products. This option is rarely implemented in the home because of the complexity of installation - the valve is inserted at the assembly stage of the glass packet. In addition, the product degrade the heat and noise insulation of the window.

Overhead modifications have found their application in production and storage facilities. Productivity of climatic devices is about 100 cubic meters / h.

In the simplest models of window air inlets, the size of the slit, and, consequently, the intensity of the air flow, is manually selected - the position of the valve is regulated. High-tech devices are equipped with humidity and atmospheric vibration sensors.

Wall model: device and installation

Externally, the wall valve resembles a cylindrical flask or a wide pipe, with a diameter of about 10-16 cm.

The plastic duct is equipped with the following elements:

  • heat-insulating layer - “sleeve” passes through the entire flask, preventing freezing of the wall and reducing the noise effect from the street;
  • filter - located at the outlet of the duct, implements rough air cleaning.

In some models, a sealing (silicone) ring with dampers is placed in front of the filter. The purpose of the part is to equalize the air flow in windy weather.

Wall valve device
On the street side, the wall duct is closed with a metal grill and a mosquito net, and on the inside with a decorative cover with an adjusting handle

When choosing supply device First of all, the power and “working” temperature of the unit are evaluated. On average, the productivity of a wall-mounted climate product is 40 cubic meters per hour. This value is enough to ventilate a room of 13 sq.m.

The operating temperature range is indicated by the manufacturer on the packaging or in the instrument manual. For severe climatic conditions, special models have been developed that prevent the formation of condensate and the appearance of an ice plug in the channel.

The following photo selection will visually familiarize with the wall valve mounting technology:

Stage 1. Definition of a place. When choosing a wall, you should consider some of the nuances:

  • installation is best done on a supporting structure;
  • optimal - “exit” of the valve to the insulated loggia;
  • it is better to avoid mounting from the roadway.

Valve manufacturers have indicated recommended and undesired installation areas. When installing, it is important to consider the airflow vector.

Wall valve placement
In the first version, fresh air, getting into the apartment, warms up and goes down. The second option - the air masses are heated by a heating radiator

Stage 2. Wall preparation and drilling. Mark the space under the through hole on the inner wall and draw the diameter of the valve.

Channel drilling order:

  1. Perform the initial drilling with a diamond crown to a depth of 10 cm.
  2. Remove debris and chisel a small notch for stable placement of the drill.
  3. When drilling, adhere to the outward slope - this position of the duct will prevent rainwater from entering the device.

The work is best done with an assistant who will periodically wet the drilling section. Humidification will reduce dust and protect the tool from overheating.

Stage 3. Installation of valve accessories. Clean the groove from dust and place a heat-insulating “sleeve” in the channel. Install the cylindrical body of the device with screwdriving movements, and fasten the fine-mesh lattice on it.

Valve mounting
The panel, the ring with dampers and the filter are fixed from the inside of the wall. Finishing stage of assembly - installation of the cover with an adjusting handle

Channelless forced ventilation

Prichochki of this category are considered the best solution to the problems with the supply of fresh air to a high-rise apartment and a private house. They are quite powerful, independent of weather changes, and their installation does not cause special difficulties.

Advanced Wall Valve

Wall-mounted ventilator with the impulse of an air stream is a modernized analogue of a wall supply valve. The fundamental difference in the design is the presence of a fan, which is injected by an air stream.

Ventilator with fan
The mechanical flow rate is determined by the fan speed. The amount of energy consumed and noise characteristics depend on the selected mode.

The principle of operation of the ventilator:

  1. Rotating fan blades pressurize street air.
  2. Passing through the duct, the air masses are cleaned and enter the apartment.
  3. The exhaust air moves towards the exhaust ducts and is discharged through the ventilation hole.

The degree of purification of the supplied air flow depends on the built-in filtration system. Optimally, if the ventilator is equipped with different types of filters.

A fan ventilator works even with a poorly efficient exhaust system. Forced feed increases air pressure, which positively affects the performance of the hood.

Breezer - compact air handling unit with climate control

The breather is designed to maintain air circulation inside the premises with an area of ​​10-50 sq.m. The device simultaneously solves several problems: supplying clean air and heating it to the set temperature values.

Wall breather
The main area of ​​application of breathers is residential premises, that is, cottages, private houses and apartments. The device is also in demand in small offices

The breather is a technically sophisticated device with the option of climate control and a control system. Components of the air handling unit:

  1. Air intake with grille - protects the device from insects and rainwater inside.
  2. An insulated duct is a sealed duct providing air flow. Thermal insulation liner prevents freezing of the wall and reduces noise.
  3. Automatic damper - opens the channel for the influx of street air after turning on the device and closes after turning off. The element prevents the leakage of cold air into the apartment.
  4. The fan is responsible for the amount of intake air from the street.
  5. The communication unit and control system are the “brains” of the breather, which is responsible for all the working processes of the device.

The compact installation is equipped with a complete filtration system. The cascade of filters implements three degrees of purification.

Breather design
Coarse filter - removal of medium and large particles (wool, dust, pollen of plants). HEPA filter - particle retention of 0.01-0.1 microns in size, including mold spores and bacteria. AK filter - carbon filtration of smoke, odors and industrial emissions

The breather is the optimal solution for creating ventilation in an apartment with filtration, providing up to 80-90% of air mass cleaning from atmospheric dust. The installation process is quite simple:

Fresh Air Conditioners

95% of the split systems on sale operate with static air. They continuously recycle the atmosphere of a closed room. Typical air conditioners perform their main task and the room becomes cooler.However, fresh air from their work is not added.

Manufacturers split systems proposed their own solution to the issue of lack of fresh air and developed air conditioners with a mixture of air from the outside.

Design features of a split system with a stitch:

  • air intake is carried out through air ducts going from the external unit to the internal one;
  • a turbine with a filtration system, which is responsible for supplying and cleaning air, is provided on the street building.

Some models of air handling units are equipped with an oxygen concentrator, and the oxygen level in the room is controlled by special sensors.

Mixed air conditioner
An oxygen concentrator passes street air through a membrane membrane separating oxygen molecules from other gaseous substances. As a result, the oxygen concentration increases

The principle of operation of the "split system with a mixture":

  1. Fresh air through the suction fan enters through the duct to the evaporative (internal) unit.
  2. Street air flows mixed with room air.
  3. After filtering and additional processing (cooling, heating), air flows into the apartment.

Despite the good idea of ​​technologists, such models of climate systems are not in great demand. Air conditioners with air inlet work loudly and are not able to provide full ventilation of the apartment. In addition, the cost of advanced equipment is 20% higher than the price of a conventional air conditioner.

Supply duct multi-systems

Duct ventilation is a complex of air ducts laid in all rooms. The heart of the system is the supply equipment located at the entrance.

The scheme of construction and operation of ventilation is determined by the type of ventilation installation. We outline the features of the two most economical and efficient ways of organizing air supply: ventilation with recovery and the use of VAV units.

The principle of operation of the complex with recovery

The recuperator is a component air handling unit. The heat exchanger can significantly reduce energy consumption, providing heat transfer from the heated exhaust air to the cold incoming streams.

Recuperation ventilation
For the functioning of the recuperator, in addition to the supply air duct, installation of exhaust ducts is required, which affects the cost of the system. The efficiency of some heat exchangers reaches 95%

Two types of heat exchangers are installed in ventilation systems: plate and rotary.

Lamellar recuperators. Structurally, they are a cartridge installed in the duct. Air flows are “cut” by a block of plates. Warm air passes on one side of the plate, and cold on the other. Due to heat exchange, condensation is formed which must be removed.

Features of the plate recuperators:

  • fresh supply and exhaust air do not mix;
  • probability of freezing in winter;
  • in recuperators made of vapor-permeable thin films, condensate does not accumulate.

However, the life of such equipment is limited to ten years.

Rotary recuperators. The principle of heat redistribution is based on the rotation of the drum through which versatile air jets move. Gradually, rotating in a drum set, the exhaust air “shares” heat with the rotor sector. When the heated portion of the rotor enters the cold supply stream, the air heats up and the rotor cools.

Types of recuperators
Rotary recuperators are compact in size and highly energy efficient. The disadvantage of this device is the partial mixing of dirty and fresh air. In cold weather, turning off rotary models is undesirable

Details about the device and the principle of operation of air conditioning systems with heat recovery are written in this article, which we advise you to familiarize yourself with.

VAV system - ventilation as needed

Variable Air Volume (VAV) installation - an efficient ventilation system that provides air intake and heating with minimal energy consumption. The complex allows you to adjust the parameters and ventilation mode for each room separately.

The standard ventilation system supplies air without taking into account the time of day, the purpose of the room and the number of residents. The performance of the VAV system is selected by the user based on specific operating conditions.

An example of the operation of VAV ventilation. Suppose that a complex with a maximum capacity of 300 cubic meters per hour serves two rooms: a bedroom and a living room. If in winter there wasn’t enough power of a heater to heat the air flow to a comfortable temperature, then in the case of conventional ventilation, the total performance would have to be reduced. As a result, it would be stuffy in both rooms.

VAV ventilation system
The operation of the VAV-system can be adjusted: during the day to supply air to the living room, and at night - to the bedroom. Each room has a separate ventilation switch

Adjustment of productivity allows to save up to 25-50% of energy in comparison with traditional ventilation.

In addition to reducing electricity bills, the VAV system has other advantages:

  • lack of freezing equipment;
  • “Mining” is output through the existing ventilation ducts, so there is no need to equip a network of exhaust ducts;
  • low cost of operation.

The disadvantage of VAV ventilation is the high price of equipment and difficulties in assembling and adjusting the operability of the complex. Design and installation must be carried out by specialists.

Conclusions and useful video on the topic

Video # 1. Technology for installing Aereco inlet on an operated window construction:

Video # 2. The principle of functioning of the supply ventilation with filtration by the example of the Tion breather:

Video # 3. The scheme of operation of the VAV ventilation system in different modes:

When choosing a method of organizing air exchange, many parameters are taken into account: the pricing policy of the equipment, the efficiency of the installation, the features of operation under different weather conditions, the presence of options for filtering and heating the air masses.

Among the many units, the optimal balance of cost and quality is demonstrated by breathers specially designed for domestic use in the apartment.

Want to talk about how efficient ventilation works in your house / apartment? Perhaps you yourself improved ventilation by installing a breather or a supply valve on the window sash? Please write comments in the block below, share your impressions, opinions and photos on the topic of the article.

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Visitors Comments
  1. Andrew

    Now, it’s just the issue of the supply ventilation device that I’ve taken up, because in our country, in principle, nothing is provided for it in Khrushchev’s. But in winter you won’t open the windows. Hence the humidity comes ... the walls are always wet, and the mold climbs. I'm not talking about smells at all. The methods in your article are, in principle, interesting, I think the wall valves do. Then I will try to unsubscribe about the results.

    • Expert
      Alexey Dedyulin

      Better pay attention to the window valve.Why do you need an extra hole in the wall? There is a risk that the wall will freeze and the temperature in the apartment will drop significantly. In case of problems with the window valve, the worst that threatens is replacing the window.

      • Expert
        Alexey Dedyulin

        Here I do not agree with you. The supply valve in the wall is a good solution, but here you need to approach responsibly. So that there is no freezing of the wall or the valve itself in the winter, you need to follow technological solutions at all stages of installation. With the correct insert (not by eye), the integrity of the structure will practically not be violated. In order not to have a strong decrease in temperature, a special valve system is provided in the apartment. You can also make a practical solution in the form of a supply wall valve above the radiator.

        At the same time, the supply ventilation realized through openings in the window frames is much more negative. And the flow of air will not always come in the right amount - this is a fact. Sometimes it makes sense to combine a supply valve in a wall in one room and in a window in another.

  2. Svetlana

    For ventilation, we leave the window ajar for the night. The bedroom is far from the kitchen, so we do not freeze and breathe fresh air. We do not have a busy track outside the windows, we live on the edge of the city. In the summer we arrange small drafts. We open the window and balcony on the other side of the apartment. We noticed that without airing, the head begins to hurt and there is nothing to breathe, so we do not neglect this event.