How to choose and install a fan in the bathroom + how to connect a fan to a switch
A forced ventilation device is one of the ways to ensure a comfortable microclimate in a private house or city apartment. More simple appliances - fans - eventually turned out to be squeezed out split-systems and air conditioners, however, they remained relevant in the bathroom or toilet.
Let's try together to figure out how to choose and install a fan in the bathroom for the most effective cleaning and removal of air.
The content of the article:
- Reasons for installing a domestic fan
- Criteria for choosing the right equipment
- Connection diagrams of the fan in the bathroom
- Fan installation instructions with timer
- Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Reasons for installing a domestic fan
The highest humidity level in the house is located in the bathroom or in the combined bathroom - where water is actively and in large quantities. The small size of the room, especially wall cladding, a sharp change in air temperature are additional factors in which high humidity becomes the most dangerous.
There is a risk of the spread of fungus and mold - unpleasant microorganisms that form colonies and are strong allergens.
The appearance of black dots in the seams between the tiles or condensate not having time to dry on the mirrors, plumbing and pipes are the first signs that the natural ventilation system is broken. The reason may be a lack of fresh air through window openings (frames, transoms, special openings under the window).
In a private house, problems can arise due to the poorly thought out ventilation channels or supply valves in the walls.
The simplest solution to ensure forced circulation of air in the bathroom is to install a fan. Modern appliances have an attractive concise design and convenient controls, have a reduced noise level and performance sufficient to create a comfortable atmosphere. If there is experience in wiring, you can choose and install a fan yourself.
Criteria for choosing the right equipment
To buy a good fan, you can just visit the supermarket and find out all the secrets from the sales assistant. However, relying on honest and reliable information at 100% is not worth it, since one of the tasks of the seller is often the implementation of stale or most expensive goods. But it’s better to start by studying rating the best devices, after which you need to carefully study the important aspects of the upcoming purchase.
Types of household fans
Unlike production units, household appliances are small in size, have less power and look less industrial. Usually use stationary devices for exhaust ventilation, built into the wall or ceiling (mobile portable systems are used in construction sites, in workshops, etc.).
According to the method of air intake and design, domestic fans are divided into two types:
- axial, located in a cylindrical body and equipped with blades that capture and move air parallel to the axis;
- radial, used to change the direction of the air flow from the axial version to radial when passing through the impeller of the device.
The first type is in demand much more often because of the simplicity of design and installation in a residential environment.
According to the place and method of installation, two groups are also distinguished:
- waybillshaving a square or round shape, mounted in the ventilation duct hole (usually on the wall under the ceiling);
- channelmore powerful and quiet, which are placed inside the ducts.
For a city apartment, only the first category is suitable, and for private houses there are options.
Often, when choosing a fan for a bathroom, they focus solely on design. Appearance is important, but without suitable technical properties, the device will not cope with the task assigned to it. Consider the parameters that play a decisive role in the purchase.
Technical characteristics of bathroom appliances
A fan has much less nuances than a refrigerator or a washing machine, however, for each room, each characteristic is important:
- device performance, reflecting the speed and volume of air exchange in the room;
- noise level;
- safety (moisture protection).
Performance is necessarily indicated in the technical description of the device. Average indicators are in the range of 50-250 m³ / h.
The performance of the noise varies from 25 to 50 dB. The lower the noise figure, the quieter the fan runs, respectively, the calmer the situation in the house. Ideal are 25-30 dB parameters. They are required if the device operates in night mode.
Carefully consider the choice of powerful models in which the noise level reaches a maximum. Our other material has a rating of the best silent fans for the bathroom, we suggest you familiarize yourself.
The fan belongs to electrical devices, so the degree of protection is important. For the bathroom, equipment marked IP 44 and IP 45 is suitable.
The calculation of productivity by the formula
It is not difficult to find the performance of the device - it is indicated in the passport, but how to determine if a fan with such characteristics is suitable for your bathroom? One solution is to make calculations using ready-made formulas. And for starters, you should calculate the volume of the bathroom and find out the optimal rate of air exchange.
The formula for calculating volume is known from school:
V = a x b x h
(the length must be multiplied by the width, then the result - by the height)
For example, the length of the bathroom is 2 m, the width is 1.8 m, the height is 2.5 m. We multiply everything, we get a volume of 9 m³.
Further, the parameters of the air exchange rate for the bathroom will be required.
According to construction standards, for a family of 1-3 people, the multiplicity (the number of fresh air changes per hour) is 6, if there are more than 3 people living, then 8. We multiply the received volume by 9 m³ by 8, we get 72 m³ / h. Therefore, when buying a device, we pay attention to samples with a capacity of 75 m³ / h or slightly higher.
The simplest modifications, equipped with a noisy rotating screw and an inconvenient control method, are a thing of the past. Today, bathroom fans are equipped with devices that expand their functionality and even allow you to program the air exchange process. Let's consider some improvements:
- Non-return valve. This is a special automatic damper that prevents the return of exhaust air back into the room. As soon as the fan shuts off, the flap closes.
- Motion Sensor. A technical device that responds to the appearance of a person. Its use is not always justified, since short periods of time during which a person is in the bathroom is not enough to ventilate it.
- Humidity sensor. A device that automatically adjusts on / off depending on the percentage of moisture in the air. According to the requirements of SanPiN (5179-90), the humidity in the room should not exceed 60-65%. If the indicator is higher, the hydrostat is triggered and the fan starts.
- Timer. A device that allows you to delay turning on the fan for a certain period of time. Suppose a motion sensor has triggered or you have pressed the light-off button - and exactly after 15 (30, 45) minutes, the fan turns on.
An additional function of “airing” is the ability to constantly maintain the most comfortable microclimate in the bathroom. The device constantly works at low speeds, but if necessary, turns on at full power.
On our site there are several articles on the selection of exhaust fans for the bathroom. We recommend that you familiarize yourself with them:
- Hood to the bathroom: selection rules and installation features
- Exhaust fan in the bathroom: how to choose the right + installation rules
- Ventilation in the bathroom and toilet: principle of operation, typical schemes and installation features
Connecting several electrical appliances into a single network is not an easy task. Consider some of the most popular hood equipment options.
Connection diagrams of the fan in the bathroom
The ability to use several ways to turn on and adjust the fan presents the choice of the desired circuit. When connecting, you should be guided by the design features, the availability of additional devices and manufacturer's recommendations. The simplest scheme is to install a fan with a built-in on / off device.
The following diagram shows how to connect a fan in the bathroom to a separate switch. The management process is becoming easier, but you will have to lay a couple of additional cables.
Setting a timer complicates the connection process somewhat: one more additional phase wire is required.
The fan connection diagram along with the lighting is convenient from a control point of view, but inefficient. It turns out that the room is ventilated only during the period when the light is on.
This leads either to incomplete ventilation, or to an excessive consumption of electricity. A more appropriate option is to install two-key switch.
Before choosing a circuit, specify whether there is the possibility of gating and laying additional electrical wires.
Fan installation instructions with timer
For self-installation, we recommend that you purchase an overhead fan that is attached to the ventilation outlet. Before installing the device, carefully study the accompanying technical documentation. You do not need to buy a timer separately, it usually comes complete with diagrams and installation instructions.
Similar models - Era, CATA, Migliore, VENTS, VULKAN.
Check installation conditions
In order for the installation to proceed without hindrance, you should check whether there is air draft in the common house shaft (or the duct of a private house), whether the hole in the wall is suitable for fixing the selected model, whether the wiring corresponds to the wiring diagram.
Old houses have ventilation openings in bathrooms, bathrooms and kitchens. Usually they are located high under the ceiling and have the same diameter (shape).
However, after major repairs, when additional walls, partitions and false ceilings are being built, there is a possibility of transferring the installation site of the fan, but with the device of an additional channel leading all the way to the same hole.
If you want to make the installation process as quick as possible, prepare in advance the tools and materials that may be required for installation:
- tape measure, pencil, square;
- puncher for wall chipping;
- screwdriver, hammer, pliers;
- sealant or liquid nails (if necessary);
- fasteners (dowels, screws).
When choosing a circuit with a switch as a control device, you need to purchase it, as well as the electric wire.
Important nuances of wiring
If you are installing a fan for the first time, get ready for the construction work necessary for wiring the power cable. You may have to remove the plastic ceiling, make holes in the stretch, ditch the walls and dismantle the tiles.
If it is too complicated or expensive, you can choose a simpler way - the outer wiring in the cable channels. This is not so aesthetically pleasing, but fast and inexpensive.
Requirements for wires and sockets:
- cable cross-section must correspond to the load;
- Do not mount wires in a metal braid;
- all cables must be insulated;
- protection class of sockets - not lower than IP 44;
- Consider protective shutdown or grounding.
It is strictly forbidden to ground the wires through heating or sewer pipes.
Fan assembly and timer connection
The assembly of the device usually takes place along with the installation, since the case is first attached, then the wires are connected, and at the very end the decorative panel snaps into place.
Using the back wall of the housing, which will be mounted directly on the wall, we mark up.
When the working part of the fan is firmly fixed to the wall, we lead the wires and attach to the terminals of the device.
If there will be no other devices, install a decorative cover.
To connect an exhaust fan with a timer, you must select one of the schemes. Ideally, if the fan is also connected to a switch, a 4-wire cable is required. The core, which is usually used for grounding, is connected to a timer.
After installing all the instruments and devices, it is necessary to test to check how the fan functions.
Along with this, the timer is usually set as well - they set the time interval after which the hood will automatically turn on.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Video installation instructions for the simplest model:
Detailed instructions for installing a hood with a non-return valve in a private house:
Instructions from the manufacturer of the silent Silent 100 model:
Setting the fan switch:
As you can see, you can set up exhaust ventilation yourself, without involving professional electricians, but subject to several conditions. To connect a fan (simple, with a timer or switch), you need to understand the electrical circuits, carefully study the design of the device and, when installing, take into account technical and sanitary standards.
During the study of the material, there were questions about connecting an exhaust fan in the bathroom? Or can you give valuable advice to those who first faced this challenge? Please leave your comments in the box below.