Connecting an air conditioner motor: diagram and steps for connecting an outdoor and indoor unit

Alexey Dedyulin
Checked by a specialist: Alexey Dedyulin
Author: Victor Kitaev
Last update: January 2020

The classic household (split) air conditioning system has several electric motors. Plus, manufacturers of this kind of equipment provide for the execution of connections of all electric motors included in the structure. Therefore, only a small part of the work with the electrical circuit remains for end users.

In this article, we will consider in more detail what and how the potential owner of the equipment needs to be done in order to correctly connect the air conditioner motor and put the equipment into operation. We will also talk about the features of the split system scheme, we will present visual photos and useful video materials.

Scheme household split systems

The split system is traditionally used in everyday life for air conditioning. True, in addition to this option of domestic air conditioners, other designs are also used. However, as practice shows, the operation of another type of climatic equipment is much less common.

Air conditioner design features

What is, from a structural point of view, a household split system?

Actually, this is air conditioning equipment, consisting of two separate modules (blocks):

  1. Unit for indoor installation.
  2. Block for external installation.

Under indoor installation It implies the installation of one part of the air conditioner structure (unit for indoor installation) directly inside the room where ambient air treatment is required.

Accordingly, under external installation implies the installation of another part of the air conditioner structure (unit for external installation), directly outside the room. As a rule, installation in this case is carried out on the street side of the wall of the house or other premises.

But first, we recommend that you familiarize yourself with where you canput air conditioning in a private house and apartment.

Split system household
A classic example of a split system (domestic air conditioning unit), which is structurally composed of two separate modules - external and internal

Bundle of indoor and outdoor modules

At the next stage, the user needs to connect both modules into a single working system.

Provides module binding by mechanical parts pipelines for refrigerant circulation, as well as binding electrical part electric cable, respectively. This process is called laying the air conditioner.

Connection of split system modules
The connection procedure on the modules (shown is the internal module of the split system) of the refrigerant circulation pipelines, as well as the electrical conductors

In fact, a household air conditioner contains several functional electric motors, each of which requires power:

  • compressor motor;
  • outdoor fan motor;
  • fan motor of the indoor unit.

In addition, the air conditioning system can be additionally equipped with electric motors, the operation of which drives the blinds, directing the outgoing air flow in the right direction.

Blinds for regulating the outgoing air flow are usually part of the design of the indoor unit of a home air-conditioning unit.

Diagram of a complete assembly of a split system
Demonstration of a fully assembled split system with the installation of indoor and outdoor units, combined into a single structure through technological connections

Depending on the power level of the outdoor module of the air conditioning installation, two or more condenser cooling fans can be used (installed in the outdoor module).

True, for domestic climate equipment such options are rare. But for the use of split-system designs for two fans in offices, they are quite common.

Motor Connection Instructions

And now we will analyze in detail how to properly connect the motor of a domestic air conditioner. So, manufacturers of household air conditioners provide the most convenient option for connecting equipment to the power supply network. Moreover, a simplified connection scheme is provided for both single-phase and three-phase networks.

Direct connection of the air fan of the outdoor unit of the air conditioner is not necessary. It is enough to connect a common (main) power and switching cable to a special terminal. But first, we recommend that you figure out how select and install the machine on the air conditioner.

Terminal with terminal in outdoor unit design
View of the contact terminal for connecting the air conditioning system after the protective cover is open. In this case, a three-phase connection is demonstrated, which is not often used in everyday life.

To figure out how to properly connect an electric motor from an air conditioner to a power supply network and understand the intricacies of connecting conductors on a switching terminal, consider the electrical circuit of one of the devices.

The electrical circuits for connecting domestic air-conditioning units have insignificant differences. Any manufacturer of such machines is interested in competition, even in terms of the convenience (simplicity) of the electrical connection.

Stage # 1 - connecting the outdoor unit

An important detail should be noted right away: the electrical circuitry for switching modules and connecting to the mains is always present on the back of the protective terminal cover.

In any case, well-known manufacturing companies adhere to this practice. In addition, the electrical switching scheme is always included in the documentation of the device.

Connection scheme of the outdoor unit split system
An example of a switching circuitry on the terminal cover of an outdoor module of a home air conditioning system.Here is a single-phase version, where the terminals are output to the terminal: N - neutral (zero); L is phase; 3, 4 - terminals of the conductors for interfacing with the indoor unit; also on the circuit there is a ground contactor

In the above connection diagram, you can clearly see the presence of two electric motors present in the composition of the external (external) module.

This, respectively, compressor motor (CM) and condenser fan motor (FM). Schematically, the power lines of both electric motors are switched and output to the terminal.

Stage # 2 - connecting the indoor unit

The split system module, designed for indoor installation, also has a switching terminal through which electrical communication with the outdoor module is carried out. Through the same terminal, power is supplied to the indoor unit.

Terminal Block Terminal Block
An example of the location of a switching terminal for an indoor air conditioning system module. It should be noted - for products of different companies, the performance and location may vary slightly.

Usually, in the simplest version, a signal pair of conductors is supplied to the terminal of the internal module, as well as:

  • phase;
  • zero;
  • grounding.

Again, depending on the structural design of the air conditioning system of a particular brand, the configuration of the electrical connection may look different.

Therefore, you should always carefully read the technical documentation before proceeding with the installation work.

Stage # 3 - connecting two system modules

So, suppose that both air conditioning modules are mounted inside and outside the building - mounted on wall panels:

  • between the modules laid the refrigerant pumping line, consisting of two copper pipes of different sections;
  • trunk pipes are insulated and fixed;
  • the end points of the main pipes are appropriately connected to the modules;
  • the mounted line is checked for tightness with a time delay.

After performing such a sequence of operations with a newly installed domestic air conditioner, it is already possible to start organizing electrical communication between the modules with subsequent connection directly to the power supply network. One of the possible options for connecting the blocks is shown in the diagram below.

Connection diagram for split system modules
A variant of a circuit diagram demonstrating the integration of individual modules of a household air conditioning system into a single system for the electrical part. But this example, unfortunately, does not apply to all models of split systems, without exception

Actually, as can be seen from the above configuration of combining the modules with each other, no special difficulties are expected for the user. It is only necessary to observe the numbering (or designation) of the terminals when making connections between the terminals of the indoor and outdoor units.

That is, if on the external module the electric wire is connected to the terminal marked “1”, on the indoor module the same conductor is also connected to terminal “1”, etc.

Of course, the execution of electrical interconnects, as well as connections to the supply network, must be done taking into account the correct conductor cross-section. Permissible cross-sections are usually indicated in the documentation for the device in the same section where the circuit diagram is presented.

We also recommend that you familiarize yourself with the features of the choice.places for installing the outlet for air conditioning.

Conclusions and useful video on the topic

Thus, the connection of the electric motor of the air conditioner (more precisely, the technological connection of the household air conditioning unit) is quite accessible to be performed directly by the user. The video demonstrates the following procedure:

The home master, who decided to connect the air conditioning motor, must have the basics of working with refrigerants, plus have an idea of ​​electrical networks. Of course, it is desirable that some experience in such matters be present. If at all there are no ideas about the work of such a plan, the best way out is to contact the service.

Do you have personal experience in connecting a domestic discussion electric motor and want to share it with other users? Or want to clarify certain nuances of making electrical connections from our experts? Write your recommendations, ask questions - the feedback block is located below this publication.

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