Is forced ventilation in the bathroom necessary: ​​norms and stages of arranging efficient air exchange

Alexey Dedyulin
Checked by a specialist: Alexey Dedyulin
Author: Oleg Zubarev
Last update: December 2019

The musty air in the bathroom and the fungus on the walls are all the consequences of insufficient air exchange. Breathing in stale air or just taking a shower in such a room is not only not pleasant, but also harmful to health. Do you agree? But to avoid these negative phenomena is possible if you equip a system of efficient air exchange.

And how to do this we will discuss in detail in our article - we will find out whether forced ventilation in the bathroom is needed or if it will be enough to use natural ventilation. We analyze the regulatory requirements and features of the arrangement of the ventilation system.

Bathroom Ventilation Requirements

About what an effective, practical and reliable air exchange system should be said in a number of domestic by-laws:

  • GOST 30494-2011, where described, what should be the microclimate in the premises;
  • SP 60.13330.2012, which sets out the requirements and rules that indicate what ventilation should be.

In addition, air exchange is mentioned in SP 55.13330.2016 and SP 54.13330.2016, but they refer to the Code of Conduct above.

The listed by-laws say that air exchange is necessary to maintain air quality at the required level.

It will be such if the content of harmful substances does not exceed moderate values. For example, when the amount of carbon dioxide in each cubic meter is not more than 400 cm³. The average is 400-600 cm³, not comfortable, but acceptable - 600-1000 cm³, and over 1000 cm³ - this is a very low air quality.

Hood in the bathroom
According to the legislation, the microclimate parameters in the bathroom must comply with regulatory requirements. And for this, an effective air exchange system must be arranged in the room

At the same time, when organizing air exchange in residential and office buildings, including a bathroom, it should be remembered that it should help create comfortable living conditions.

In for this at the necessary level should be supported:

  • air temperature;
  • indoor air speed;
  • air humidity;
  • resulting temperature and its local asymmetry.

All these indicators comprehensively characterize the impact on a person of the above indicators, as well as thermal radiation.That is, the temperature in the bathroom should be 24-26 ° C, which is the optimal value. And it is guaranteed not to fall below 18 ° C, since the indicated value is considered the minimum acceptable. In this case, the resulting temperature should be in the range of 23-27 ° C, and the permitted values ​​of its asymmetry are between 17 ° C and 26 ° C.

Fungus in the bathroom
Various negative processes result from improperly organized bathroom ventilation. For example, the appearance of mold, fungus on various surfaces

The relative humidity in the bathrooms is not regulated, but usually there are hoods designed to exhaust air from the entire private house, apartment. What affects the characteristics of residential premises. Therefore, it must be borne in mind that the humidity in the rooms where people are located should be in the range of 30-45% (in summer), and in winter it can reach 60%.

In any of these cases, the air velocity (optimal) should not exceed 0.15 m / s. An acceptable value for the specified parameter is 0.2 m / s.

At the same time, significant differences in the above values ​​are unacceptable. For example, living conditions can be considered optimal if the temperature fluctuates within 2 ° C, and acceptable - with sudden changes that do not exceed 3 ° C.

Temperature characteristics should also be similar throughout the height of the room. So, if the differences exceed 2 ° C, then living conditions cannot be called optimal.

Fungal spores
The photo shows a fungus whose spores will have to breathe if the ventilation system is ineffective. And this will be only one of the negative factors. Since harmful substances are released into the air by almost everything that is used in the construction and decoration of housing: building materials, furniture, carpets, tiles and other finishing materials

And maintaining all of the above characteristics without organizing an effective air exchange system is impossible.

When is forced ventilation necessary?

The relevant guidance documents say that air exchange in residential and any other premises can be carried out in various ways. Namely, with the help of natural, forced or mixed ventilation.

And what type of air exchange to choose, depends on the conditions of a particular room. So, whether a fan is needed or not needed in a particular bathroom depends on the performance and stability of natural ventilation. More precisely, whether it can provide sufficient air exchange to maintain optimal or at least acceptable conditions.

Bath fan
Modern fans are compact, economical products designed to make any ventilation system efficient and stable.

Proper ventilation must remove at least 25 m³ of air from the bathroom every hour, and at least 90 m³ of air from the living quarters and the bathroom. This indicator is relevant if there is an extractor hood in the bathroom that provides ventilation to the rooms in which they are regularly located, residents are resting.

Moreover, these values ​​are considered the minimum possible and in reality, air exchange often needs to be more efficient and productive. The reason for this is the insufficient quality of the supplied street air. For example, due to the significant amount of carbon dioxide, the amount of which in large cities may well reach 400 cm³, and in small cities - 375 cm³ for every cubic meter of air.

As a result, to reduce CO2 to optimal values, a much larger amount of street air may often be needed. For example, to maintain optimal conditions in the bathroom, you may need not at least 25 m³ of air hourly, but up to 150 m³.

But the biggest difficulty is that the natural ventilation system is not stable. And if outside the window the air warms up to 15 ° С, then with the windows closed its effect will become practically zero.

Ventilation duct
The efficiency of the fan depends on the correct placement. For example, this product should not block the channel of the natural ventilation system or the situation with air exchange will only worsen. Therefore, for fans, a separate seat should be prepared, as shown in the photo.

In addition, the effectiveness of natural ventilation is difficult to identify - for this you will have to take measurements in the room, and at that moment when the temperature of the street air will be 5 ° C. In addition, this requires special equipment. Therefore, in most cases, indicators that it is time to get a fan, serves asfungus ormold in the bathroom (for example, in the joints between tiles, other secluded places) or an unpleasant smell. After all, most negative processes occur without visible signs and become apparent only at advanced stages.

Another important drawback of natural air exchange is the inability to effectively regulate its performance.

In addition, the use of energy-efficient windows and doors significantly affects the performance of a traditional system. The tightness of which violate the natural processes of air exchange.

As a result, we can point out that natural ventilation is structurally reliable, not costly and is able to cope with the functions assigned to it. But with the exception of critical points caused by the instability of natural air exchange and significant loads when using the bathroom.

Fan with humidity sensor
The diagram shows a fan, as well as a humidity sensor (MP590), a time relay (MP8037ADC). Which are designed to control a switching power supply (PW1245), which will automate the ventilation system and make it efficient and economical

Taking into account all these points, the optimal alternative solution is to use a mixed ventilation system. It will constantly discharge polluted air, moisture naturally, and at significant loads - forcibly, that is, with the help of a fan.

Which is more likely to make living conditions comfortable and harmless to health, and at moderate costs.

At the same time, you should not use a fan on an ongoing basis. Since this significantly increases operating costs, it reduces fire safety.

The arrangement of the air exchange system

Creating ventilation in the bathroom is a responsible procedure. After all, it is necessary to ensure effective air exchange with minimal heat loss. In addition, the system must be safe, especially when the fan will be used. Since it is electric, and in the bathroom there is traditionally high humidity and there are splashes during hygiene procedures.

To take into account all of the above and other points, the creation of any ventilation system should begin with the preparation of technical specifications.

Then they proceed to the practical part, which consists of 3 stages:

  • design;
  • installation;
  • performance check.

Consider each of the stages of the arrangement of ventilation in more detail

Stage # 1 - drafting

Such a stage as design should not be ignored even when creating a ventilation system in the apartment. Moreover, even in one where all the necessary channels and many other structural elements are already provided. Since it is at this stage that it is decided whether the system will be safe and effective.

Fan mounting
In order to provide the bathroom, as well as all housing with clean air, the design and installation of structural elements of the ventilation system should be entrusted to specialists

In addition, it is the design that will make the ventilation system:

  • structurally simplethat will provide reliability, durability;
  • easy to maintain, which will enable all the necessary work to be done by the residents themselves, and this will reduce operating costs;
  • maintainableThat will allow you to quickly and without significant costs to replace the failed node, a system element.

As well as designing, it will be possible to exclude a decrease in the aesthetic qualities of the interior of the room.

In this case, the fan is preferably used in conjunction with a humidity sensor. Since the presence of the specified device will effectively influence the air quality and microclimate as a whole. Moreover, without the participation of tenants and excessive consumption of electricity. On connecting a fan with a humidity sensor, we examined in detail in this article.

Pipe length extension
Design must be trusted by professionals, not sellers from the fan store. The reason is that professionals are able to offer a truly optimal solution to eliminate moisture, particles of hazardous substances from the bathroom and the apartment as a whole. For example, the photo shows a way to lengthen the duct, which allowed to obtain a significant increase in traction without mounting a fan

In addition, to equip an effective air exchange system, it is not enough to know why a modern fan in the bathroom is needed, it is also necessary to have special knowledge that will help to make the right choosing the right fan.

For example, the noise of the device should not exceed 35 dB, since ignoring such a standard threatens a negative impact on health. In this case, the electric motor must be protected from splashes. To choose a silent fan, we recommend that you familiarize yourself with rated best models.

Stage # 2 - installation and connection of the fan

Installation of modern ventilation equipment is no less responsible procedure than design. The reason is that creating a project in reality is quite difficult, especially for people who do not have an adequate supply of skills, experience and equipment. But it depends on the quality of work and the punctuality of the performers whether the characteristics of the ventilation system will comply with the project provisions.

Cracks, holes, and other structural changes that have occurred during poor installation can reduce the effectiveness of the ventilation system. And also often the wrong selection of components affects the air exchange. For example, when a fan is installed in the system, this will necessitate the installation of ventilation valves inmetal-plastic windows or wallsthat provide a flow of outside air in optimal quantities.

If at the same time a decision is made to simplify the system or carelessness is shown when choosing a fan and devices to ensure air flow, then you should expect troubles. For example, in the form of backdraft and associated costs to eliminate it.

Installation of a ventilation system
In most cases, bathroom owners should not think about how to do the work on their own, but only solve organizational issues. For example, in finding good specialists who will ensure high-quality installation. Such a decision will pay for itself

Therefore, it is advisable to trust all the work to modernize the ventilation system in the bathroom exclusively to specialists and conclude relevant agreements with them. This is necessary in order to avoid liability for incorrectly performed work, for example, unsuccessfully drilled boxes, damaged structures, etc.

To perform the installation itself, a number of operations should be performed:

  1. Dismantling the old ventilation grillmounted on an outlet;
  2. Determination of places for drilling holes for screws that provide fastening of the fan;
  3. Drilling holes, which is performed using a hammer drill or hammer drill;
  4. Fastening the fan, which is carried out using the screws included in the delivery of the unit.

If there is no power tool, then the fan can be installed using liquid nails or high-quality silicone glue. But for this it is necessary to clean the seat from plaster and other materials that will reduce the quality of work.

The last stage of installation of this product is the wiring of electrical wires for connection to the power supply, which must be hidden in the wall. If this rule is ignored, then the operation of the fan will not be safe enough. And the aesthetic properties of the room are low.

Since connecting a fan to power grids is a laborious and costly procedure, it is advisable to perform it simultaneously with repairs in the bathroom.

If you prefer to independently install and connect a fan in the bathroom, we recommend that you familiarize yourself with the popular installation diagrams and tips.

Stage # 3 - System Health Check

A performance check should not be ignored under any circumstances, because it will help to timely detect problems and prevent the onset of negative consequences.

The reason is that it allows you to timely identify:

  • errors and inaccuracies;
  • reduced safety of living if the bathroom has a geyser.

Moreover, the most important procedure is to monitor the operability of the ventilation system as a whole.

Quality control of work
Checking the effectiveness of the ventilation system must be carried out by specialists. The reason for this is that the installation of a fan, additional openings and other features can significantly change the air exchange characteristics. And in the negative direction as well. What you need to quickly identify and eliminate

Checking the ventilation system should not be performed using the attached piece of paper or a lit match, but using special equipment that makes it possible to determine the effectiveness of the system.

Such diagnostics are especially important when installing a fan and other mechanical devices that significantly affect the change in air exchange. Therefore, specialists should be involved in the performance check.

We talked about the rules for checking the operation of ventilation ducts in our other article.

Conclusions and useful video on the topic

The video below shows how to create a ventilation system:

Air exchange in the bathroom should be effective. And this can be achieved if you use a reliable and inexpensive to use natural ventilation system with a fan installed in its duct. Which will increase the efficiency and stability of ventilation at critical moments. Since most of the time there is no need for forced air exchange.

Want to talk about your experience in arranging a ventilation system in a bathroom? Or would you like to supplement the above material with useful information? Ask questions, share experiences, participate in discussions - the feedback form is located below the article.

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