How does a humidifier work: device, principle of operation and types of devices

Alexey Dedyulin
Checked by a specialist: Alexey Dedyulin
Author: Grigory Skok
Last update: October 2019

All organisms receive water not only during the quenching of thirst, but also from the environment. Not always a natural level of humidity meets sanitary standards. To achieve the required value, devices are used that saturate the air with beneficial moisture. You should familiarize yourself with the principle of operation of these devices. Right?

We will tell you what the humidifier is and how it works, which allows you to create a comfortable microclimate in the room. In the article we proposed, the types of devices are described, their technical and technological differences are given. Valuable recommendations are given that determine the choice of the best model for you.

Why do you need a humidifier?

When the heating season begins, then you need to monitor this even more carefully. Indeed, due to heating, the air is additionally dried, which negatively affects one's well-being.

More specifically, when operating heating appliances, the relative humidity inside the room can decrease up to 20%. For comparison, in Sahara this parameter is at least 25%. That is, we can say that many people work in conditions that can be compared with desert ones.

Of course, to solve such a problem, you can use the "grandmother's" technique - to hang wet linen throughout the house or apartment. But the obvious drawback of this method is the inability to maintain the desired humidity.

To maximize the performance of the humidifier, it should be turned on in a closed room.

The best solution is to purchase a specialized device - a humidifier. With it, you can easily maintain a certain humidity in both office and residential premises. Humidifier will help create a truly favorable and comfortable microclimate for humans.

A distinctive feature of modern models of air washers is that they automatically maintain the level of humidity specified by the user. This increases the efficiency and safety of the operation of such a device.

If you spend money on such a device, then after a while you will notice that households, in particular children, are much less likely to get sick. In this case, the skin will become smoother and silky, which allows you to slightly but suspend the aging process. In addition, viral activity is greatly reduced in humidified air.

Allergic reaction
Dry air can cause allergic reactions. Due to the low humidity, dust particles move quickly into the respiratory tract and irritate them.

Optimum humidity is important not only for people, but also for wood or paper products. That is, by buying an air cleaner you can protect furniture, books, paintings, frames, documents, parquet, musical instruments and much more from drying out, cracking and permanent damage.

In the end, normal humidity in the room will positively affect the plants. Indeed, in most cases, representatives of the tropics are on the windowsills. Such plants are adversely affected by the dry climate. But in the case of creating an optimal microclimate, they will grow more intensively, bloom more abundantly and not turn yellow.

The principle of operation of a typical humidifier

With what we need such a device, figured out. But how does it work? Regardless of the type of humidifier, the principle of its operation is based on the evaporation of water.

This can be realized by boiling or due to ultrasonic vibrations of a thin membrane. In this case, to activate it, you only need to fill it with water, plug it into a power outlet and click on the button.

In addition to its main function, the humidifier can perform a number of additional tasks.

These include:

  • air purification from various impurities and dust;
  • elimination of electrostatic charges;
  • acting as a lamp.

A good solution is to install a capsule with aromatic oils. Such a solution will allow not only to maintain an optimal level of humidity, but also to heal by inhaling healing fumes.

Working humidifier
Advanced models can work around the clock. Moreover, they practically do not make noise and do not interfere with the residents

Existing types of humidifiers

Before you go to the store, you need to thoroughly deal with existing types of devices - there are thousands of options on the market that differ in power, the presence of any additional functions and, of course, price. The first thing you should pay attention to when choosing such household appliances is the type of humidifier.

All models on the market can be conditionally divided into the following categories:

  • ultrasound
  • steam;
  • classic
  • sinks;
  • climatic complexes.

Each humidifier type It has its advantages and disadvantages, which must be taken into account when choosing. Moreover, each of them works on its own principle, so some models are not recommended for installation in rooms where children live.

Ultrasonic Humidifiers

The most common are devices that evaporate water due to ultrasonic vibrations of the thinnest membrane. It is the use in the design process of these elements of innovative technologies that has brought the devices the recognition of millions of customers around the world.

Principle of operation ultrasonic type of instruments: Water becomes steam due to high frequency vibrations. That is, air is absorbed from the room, after which it passes through the device and is saturated with liquid. Then he returns to the living room, but already in the form of wet fog.

The resulting air does not heat up. Therefore, you can not be afraid to burn yourself with it.Accordingly, ultrasonic humidifiers are completely safe for young children, which makes it possible to install them in a children's room.

Ultrasonic humidifier
Devices that evaporate water using high-frequency oscillations can be used not only in residential premises, but also in greenhouses and conservatories

If at home there are antiquities that require special, reverent care, then such moisturizers will be the best solution. In this case, antique furniture, decorations, parquet, musical instruments and much more will not be affected by dry air.

Among all the devices on the market, ultrasonic devices stand out due to their following advantages:

  • high technology makes their operation safe. The device will automatically turn off if there is no water in the tank or if the lid was not tightly closed;
  • low noise will not interfere with watching a movie or relaxing;
  • a rotating spray gun evenly humidifies the air in the room;
  • the built-in hygrostat automatically turns on / off, while maintaining a comfortable microclimate, and saving energy;
  • the presence of an effective filter cartridge allows you to purify water and to avoid the appearance of white plaque on furniture and interior items.

Many models are equipped with a special indicator for convenience, which shows the current level of humidity. Also, devices differ in control method. Some of them are turned on with the rotary knob, and others - by pressing the touch buttons.

Ultrasonic Touch Humidifier
The only negative of ultrasonic devices is their high cost. But the small size, high efficiency and economy completely offset this drawback

Steam humidifiers

Steam-type devices maintain optimal humidity through hot evaporation. In this case, the water is heated using a pair of electrodes, which leads to its transition into a gaseous state.

A clear advantage of the models is to raise the humidity above 60%. At the same time, steam devices differ in considerable performance. For example, some humidifiers can evaporate about 0.7 L of water in just one hour.

Similar devices are made of special heat-resistant plastic. For ease of use, they are equipped with a folding handle, which allows you to conveniently transfer them to another place.

Particular attention must be paid to the safety of steam humidifiers. Many modern models boast a triple protection system - if the water has completely evaporated or the lid was not closed properly, then the device simply will not turn on.

As for the shortcomings, steam appliances consume a lot of electricity. In addition, they are rarely supplied with a hygrostat, so it will have to be purchased separately.

The scope of their application is not limited to humidification of the air in the room. The equipment can be used for inhalation and aromatherapy. To do this, insert the capsule with the drug, sit next to it and inhale the warm and healing fumes.

Steam humidifier
Simple design, high productivity and affordable price for everyone are the main advantages of steam powered appliances.

And if you use flavorings during such a procedure, you can fill your home with the smells of flowers, fruits or, for example, chocolate, which will cheer up every member of the family. You can also put a steam humidifier in the greenhouse, greenhouse, conservatory. They will allow you to create the optimal microclimate in them for the growth and flowering of plants.

What devices are traditional?

Traditional or classic appliances have a fairly simple design, low noise and low power consumption.

They are usually equipped with a built-in fan that draws air from the room and drives it through the evaporator.They work without a hygrostat, and the desired humidity is maintained automatically.

If you need to increase the efficiency of the device, you can put it in a place with the best air circulation or leave it near a heat source. Such solutions can not only improve the performance of the humidifier, but also get rid of the dirt and dust in the room. This is almost impossible to achieve, even after a thorough cleaning.

Today, manufacturers are thinking about customer convenience. Therefore, many classic models allow, without looking inside the humidifier, to find out how much water is left in it.

Traditional humidifier
Devices of a traditional type will be an ideal choice not only for the home, but also for the office. In addition, complete security allows you to use the device in the bedrooms and even in the children's room

A good choice would be devices that, when air is cleaned, destroy pathogens. Classic humidifiers can also be used for aromatherapy. To do this, just insert a special capsule into them.

Subsequently, the device will begin to exude aroma, creating a microclimate comfortable for being in the room. After all, nothing relaxes and relieves stress like the smell of your favorite flowers.

Air washers and their features

The difference between the sink and all of the above types of devices is that it combines the functions of not only a humidifier, but also an air purifier. That is, such a device is a kind of vacuum cleaner engaged in wet-mechanical cleaning. In this case, you will not need to buy any replacement items or consumables.

The design of the air wash can be considered truly ingenious. Thanks to the system, which consists of plastic discs, the water from the tank rises. Further, the air passing through it is cleaned of pollen, dust and a whole list of other harmful particles.

Among the many advantages of the device, it is especially worth highlighting:

  • antibacterial and antiviral protection;
  • several power levels;
  • low noise level;
  • long service life;
  • simplicity of design;
  • ease of operation.

A good choice would be to buy devices inside which there is an ionizing silver rod. This metal effectively disinfects water. In this case, the rod serves for a sufficiently long time, and the number of ions in it remains almost unchanged.

Air wash
It is not possible to raise humidity above 60% with an air cleaner. This is the only drawback of such devices.

Climatic complexes for the house

Climate complexes should be included in a separate category. The principle of their functioning is based on the natural saturation of air in the room with moisture. In such devices there is a special fan that drives the stream through the water, as a result of which it evaporates.

The latest innovation among these devices are models with the HEPA anti-allergenic filter. This element captures a wide variety of microparticles, including dust, pathogenic bacteria, viruses, and more.

And thanks to the presence of a carbon filter, working on the principle of similar cooker hoods, air gets rid of unpleasant odors. For example, such a solution will allow you to clean the room from harmful gases or tobacco smoke.

The list of advantages of climate systems should include low energy consumption, as well as high efficiency. At the same time, they allow you to engage in aromatherapy, which will calm the nervous system, and also relieves stress, which is especially important after a hard day's work.

As for the shortcomings, such models have a certain moisture limit - up to 60%. In addition, the filters will periodically have to be changed, and the large dimensions of the device will take up precious square meters, which owners of small apartments will not like very much.

Climatic complex
A device that knows how to clean the air a priori can not be cheap. On average, the price of the climate complex ranges from 600 to 1100 dollars

The scope of climatic complexes covers both residential premises and offices. They can be used without problems in children's rooms, and thanks to their high performance, devices can even clean a smoky and dusty room.

What to look for when buying a humidifier

It is not possible to accurately determine which humidifier is better. After all, for each individual room you need to select your device. For example, if the room is just dry air, then you can do with an inexpensive device.

But everything changes if the device is bought for a child with breathing problems. In this case, it is better to invest in an expensive climate system.

How to calculate performance?

Before going to the store, you need to determine the budget that can be spent on the purchase. Depending on this amount, you can determine the characteristics of the device.

In most cases, the box with the humidifier indicates the amount of air that passes through the filter per unit of time. In this case, it is better to give preference to models that will process at least two volumes of the room in one hour. To calculate the dimensions of the room, it is necessary to multiply the height of the ceilings by the area.

Water consumption and noise level

The size of the tank directly depends on how long the humidifier will work without the need to top up water. As for the flow rate, then look at the models that evaporate 8-12 liters per day. Their range is quite large. Therefore, everyone will be able to choose the device that is optimal in quality and cost.

Noise levels must be given special attention. After all, no one will like it if the humidifier constantly emits an unpleasant and disturbing sound. With such a device it will be simply impossible to sleep.

Humidifier filter
Try to find out immediately which filters capture which dirt. In addition, they will have to be changed regularly. So ask where they can be bought at an adequate cost.

Useful extras

A good solution would be to order an air humidifier with an indicator showing that you need to add water. Using it makes using the device easier.

Pay attention to the auto-off functions when tipping over the device and protection against running without water. After all, you can simply forget to fill the tank or accidentally touch the device, which will lead to a fire. Remember that the humidifier must first of all be safe for households.

The following useful details are also worth adding to the functions above:

  1. Indicator of the need for cleaning. All nozzles, containers and filters require regular maintenance. Therefore, it is better to buy a device that will tell you when it needs to be cleaned.
  2. A pen. In order not to go into the arms with a humidifier, buy a model that is convenient to carry.
  3. Rotating spray gun. With it, moisture will be distributed evenly throughout the room.
  4. Night mode. This feature is especially relevant for humidifiers that are very noisy or have an excessively bright display.
  5. Protection against a tightly closed water tank or improper assembly.

A good solution would be to buy a device that, in addition to cleaning, also ionizes the air. Indeed, in this case, the air will better attract moisture to itself, which will make the device more efficient. But give preference to models that allow you to turn off the ionization.

Fragrance Humidifier
It is highly discouraged to use oil-based fragrances that simply pour into water. This will cause the device to malfunction.

To always smell of flowers in the apartment, it is not necessary to force all window sills to plants. It is enough to purchase a humidifier with the aromatization function.As a rule, a smelling solution is poured into a special capsule through which air is drawn.

Quite often, humidifiers will work at night. Therefore, it is worth considering lighting the water. Such a night lamp can be installed in the children's room and will make its interior more comfortable for the child. But it is important that the backlight is turned off if necessary.

In addition to humidifiers, many are endowed with functions to increase the level of moisture in the ambient air. air conditioner models. The guidelines of their choice for the arrangement of the apartment will be introduced by our recommended article.

Conclusions and useful video on the topic

Video about choosing a humidifier from Dr. Komarovsky:

The principle of operation of air washers is considered in the video:

It may seem to many that an air humidifier is an absolutely useless device that you should not spend money on. But such inconspicuous, at first glance, the work of such a climatic technique raises the mood, improves the well-being and health of the user.

Please write comments in the block below. Tell us about how to choose a humidifier to improve the microclimate in your home / apartment / office. Share your own guidelines that influenced the acquisition of a particular model. Ask questions, publish photos on the topic of the article.

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Visitors Comments
  1. Marianne

    In our room, during the heating season, dry air, even without a hygrometer, is noticeable, and waking up with a dry mouth and nose after a night is not a very pleasant feeling. In the process, the humidifier is our only salvation, because in the usual ways, humidity cannot be maintained. Most of all I tend to ultrasound, I can afford it for the price, and the principle of operation is safe.

  2. Natasha

    A very convenient device, and also very healthy. They say that with flu and viral diseases, it helps the patient recover faster. It is also very comfortable to breathe with him at home, it is especially important if there is a small child in the house. It is important for them to observe the necessary humidity so as not to overdry the nasal mucosa and skin. Now there are many of them, even in the form of children's figures.

  3. In winter, the air always dries up and is difficult to breathe, it overdries the nose. The humidifier has become a real salvation for me.