Waterproofing the floor in the apartment: features of the choice of insulation materials + work procedure

Vasily Borutsky
Checked by a specialist: Vasily Borutsky
Author: Ludmila2208
Last update: March 2020

In the water supply and heating systems, breakdowns often occur, therefore there is always a risk of water leakage. Agree, this can cause a lot of trouble, such as, for example, the flooding of someone else’s apartment or the destruction of their own floor coverings. Also, do not forget that excessive moisture can lead to mold and mildew, which will negatively affect health.

Therefore, it is necessary to take care of moisture protection in advance, namely: at the very beginning of the repair. To do this, waterproof the floor, which will serve as a reliable barrier against water.

Next, we will tell you how to independently perform waterproofing work in the apartment, and also help with the selection of suitable materials.

The main advantages of floor waterproofing

Waterproofing is a protection of the concrete base, screed and front floor covering. Experts advise to carry out hydraulic protection immediately before the screed, since concrete is able to absorb moisture through micropores, and subsequently collapse.

This is especially true for owners of apartments on the ground floors, since the screed is influenced by cold (from the basement) and warm (from the apartment) air flows.

Waterproofing in the bathrooms
Protection of the floor from moisture must be applied in the bathroom, toilet and kitchen, because all the plumbing is located there and there is the highest risk of flooding the neighbors

However, the most reasonable option would be to perform floor waterproofing throughout the apartment, because:

  • in the solution that is used to screed the floor there is water, so there is a risk of leakage to neighboring apartments located below;
  • the heating system may fail, which will also lead to flooding of the lower floors;
  • waterproofing will increase the strength and durability of the floor, protect against the appearance of microcracks;
  • when installing a warm floor system, waterproofing is required.

It should be noted that it is especially necessary to equip waterproofing in areas located in the vicinity of plumbing equipment.

Selection of insulation materials

A wide range of waterproofing for floor coverings is presented on the building materials market, which differ depending on the application method and area of ​​use.

Let us further consider in more detail the main types of waterproofing materials.

Rolled waterproofing materials

The basis of roll waterproofing is fiberglass or a mixture of polyester resins.

Roll waterproofing
This type of material is sold in the form of rolls and differs in the type of filling and the method of attachment. The final layer uniting the fillings is bitumen.

Such coatings include hydroisol, isoplast, ruberoid and the like.

Depending on the mounting method, there are such types of roll insulation:

  1. Glue. Fastens with bituminous mastic or glue based on synthetic resin. There are also self-adhesive options. The base must be well prepared. It is considered a simple option, as it does not require special skills.
  2. Surfaced. The basis is polyester or fiberglass. Using a gas burner or a hair dryer, the lower layer of insulation (bitumen) is melted and then installed. This method is undesirable to use indoors, since bitumen vapors are toxic.
  3. Mechanically mounted. The basis for this species is sand with a fine fraction or roofing material. It is fixed with self-tapping screws. The option is time-consuming and not reliable enough.

The main reason for choosing roll waterproofing materials is their relatively low cost. Another advantage of roll coatings is the ability to immediately carry out further repairs.

The disadvantages include the difficulty of installation in a small area, for example, In bathroom.

It is also worth noting that during the installation of rolled waterproofing, seams are formed, which in the future can violate the tightness of the protective coating.

Lubricants for waterproofing

Today, coating materials are the most popular materials for waterproofing, and even roll materials are supplanted in their effectiveness.

Coating waterproofing
Ready-made liquid mastics are applied in several layers and completely cover the concrete surface, thereby effectively clogging all microcracks

After applying the mastic, a film is formed, which will serve as a protective barrier against exposure to unwanted moisture. Mastic materials for floor waterproofing are based on bitumen, acrylic and synthetic resins.

Depending on the constituent components and operational characteristics, there are several varieties of coating materials:

  • Cement Mastics. They include cement, fine quartz sand and polymer additives. The material has high adhesion and durability. The disadvantage is the drying time of the finished surface.
  • Bitumen. Depending on the application method, mastics of hot and cold application are isolated. The latter option is better suited for waterproofing the floor in an apartment, since bitumen does not require heating to 160-180 ° C, in contrast to mastic of hot application.
  • Polymer bitumen. Basically, compositions are made based on the modification of bitumen with latex, polyurethane or acrylic. The materials have great strength along with high adhesion. They have a higher cost than previous types of mastics.
  • Acrylic. Compared with bitumen materials, it is much more environmentally friendly and odorless. Suitable for underfloor heating systems. Their main disadvantage is the high cost.

Ready mastics and dry mixes are on the market. It is enough to dilute the latter with water according to the instructions from the manufacturer.

Breeding dry mix for waterproofing
Dry mixes for waterproofing, as a rule, are cheaper than ready-made liquid mastics, but a little more time will be spent on preparing the mixture

When choosing a suitable mastic, it is necessary to take into account not only the price of the material, but also the indicated consumption per 1 m2. Often, inexpensive mastics are more viscous, which increases the manufacturer's claimed material consumption.

Penetrating Compounds

The effect of penetrating mixtures, the so-called "impregnation", is based on penetration into the structure of the concrete base and the ability to react with it.

Impregnation action for concrete floor
After applying the mixture, it solidifies, forming crystals inside the concrete that fill all the pores. Due to this, the base acquires a solid monolithic structure, which is not amenable to moisture

Before applying the impregnation, the concrete surface must be moistened. In addition, prior to the use of impregnation, the preliminary use of a primer is not required, which will significantly reduce the cost of materials.

It should be noted that impregnation is not applied on the surfaces of foam concrete, aerated concrete and brick, since the necessary chemical reaction will not occur. The main disadvantage of the application is the high cost of materials.

The procedure for waterproofing

Almost all waterproofing methods include preparing the base, priming the surface and installing waterproofing materials. Consider the features of possible techniques in more detail.

Methods of roll waterproofing the floor

First of all, it is necessary to prepare the surface, namely: to dismantle the old coating to the concrete base, as well as to clean the floor from dust and debris.

Elimination of gaps in the floor base
Before using any method of waterproofing the floor and subsequent screed, it is necessary to eliminate cracks and cracks in the concrete base

When installing waterproofing in the bathroom and toilet, you will need to remove all plumbing equipment.

Of all the presented types of roll insulation for an apartment, it is advisable to choose an adhesive type of waterproofing.

After cleaning, the floor must be primed. The material is cut to the size of the room, leaving an overlap for lapping on the walls - approximately 10 cm. Cut strips must be left on the floor for a day so that it is leveled.

The area of ​​the room around the perimeter is glued with a special construction tape or waterproofing tape. The material is glued with glue or mastic on a polymer-bitumen basis. The prepared strips overlap each other with an overlap of at least 15 cm, while the joints of the strips are additionally glued with mastic.

There are also self-adhesive materials, the installation of which is easier, since the application of glue on the floor base is not required. You can mount roll waterproofing using a roller or pinch roller.

Experts advise making such waterproofing in two layers, one layer perpendicular to the other, after drying the previous one.

Installation of coating waterproofing

Coating waterproofing is considered the simplest method of insulation.

As in the previous method, in the beginning the preparation of the base is carried out. If a dry mixture is chosen for work, then you need to prepare the solution according to the instructions on the packaging.

Primer application on the base
Next, it is necessary to apply a deep penetration primer, which will completely dedust the floor surface and ensure good adhesion of the floor base to the mastic

Mastic is convenient to apply with a roller, after pouring it into the tray. All corners are worked out with a brush.

Installation of waterproofing tape
The waterproofing tape must be untwisted around the perimeter of the room. Then with a mastic, smear the entire seam above and below the tape

The waterproofing material is applied in two layers. Interlayer drying between the first and second application is 2-4 hours.Repair work can be continued after the mastic has completely dried, after about 10-15 hours.

Penetrating waterproofing technique

This method is considered the most effective, since it can withstand the results of even a serious pipeline breakthrough. Penetrating waterproofing also prevents corrosion of the reinforcement.

The execution technique is similar to the previous method.

Penetrating waterproofing
The penetrating mixture for waterproofing the floor is applied with a brush. No surface pretreatment with penetrating primer required

The drying time of the solution usually does not exceed one and a half hours, after which you can begin to fill the screed.

Conclusions and useful video on the topic

The method of waterproofing the floor using self-adhesive roll waterproofing:

Technology for coating waterproofing of the floor:

Waterproofing the floor can be done independently, however, the use of any material for waterproofing the floor has a number of its own characteristics and you must strictly adhere to the manufacturer's instructions.

During the repair, be sure to take care of water protection, which will protect your apartment from the negative effects of water. And, by the way, it will help to save finances, because the cost of water protection is relatively small compared to repairing floor coverings or an apartment to neighbors in case of flooding.

And what kind of material for waterproofing the floor in your own apartment did you choose and why did you choose it? Tell other visitors to our site about this.

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