How to use a water heater correctly: instruction manual for flow and storage units

Alexey Dedyulin
Checked by a specialist: Alexey Dedyulin
Author: Antonina Turyeva
Last update: March 2019

Oversized equipment and compact devices for heating water are actively involved in the formation of comfortable conditions. Few citizens know how to use a water heater, as their apartments are connected to a centralized hot water supply. However, if you have to live in Khrushchev or in the country, information about the operation of complex units will be extremely useful, right?

With us you will receive reasonable answers to all questions that arise when using the devices. In the article we proposed, the topic of water heaters is thoroughly disclosed, their types and design features are indicated.

The specifics of installation and the rules of competent operation are described in detail. Designated technological subtleties and nuances of care. To facilitate the perception of information is supplemented by photos, diagrams and video guides.

Characteristics of flow and storage units

All heating water heaters waters are divided into flow devices and cumulative models. Often the same company delivers both options to the market, and the buyer has the right to choose what exactly he needs.

Storage devices are equipped with a capacity of a certain volume into which water is collected. After filling the useful volume of the device, it begins to heat up with specially designed heating elements to the temperature specified by the user in the settings.

Water heater models
The models offered in stores allow you to choose the optimal set of functions at an affordable price. The main thing is to decide in advance what is best for a certain house / apartment

The reservoir of such heaters is necessarily insulated, which contributes to the long-term preservation of the temperature of the water inside. Its volume can be from 10 to 300 or more liters.

Manufacturers provide for the demand for large-sized appliances that can satisfy the need for heating water for a large family.

10 liter storage heater
A 10 liter storage heater can be placed in any convenient place. For example, under the sink

The larger the storage device will have, the more space will be required to place it in a house or apartment. This fact must be taken into account.

The second type of water heaters for domestic use is flowing. They differ significantly from accumulative - they do not have a reservoir for collecting a certain amount of liquid.

You may be interested in information about which type of water heaters is better - flow or cumulative?

Flow models heat the water coming from the water pipe immediately after opening the tap. Visually, such models are much smaller and are mounted next to the crane.

Variety of instantaneous water heaters
A variation of instantaneous water heaters is a special tap. It does not require much electricity and can become a real find for a summer residence.

Depending on the fuel consumed, storage and flow devices are most often:

The first have a large initial cost, but pay off after 2 years. The second ones are initially 2-3 times cheaper, but through the high cost of electricity for the third year of use, they are more expensive for their owner.

This dependence is true with constant use.

Flow models of heaters
Flowing models of heaters can be equipped with a kitchen spout, shower head. They are mounted next to the tap to avoid large heat losses.

If we are talking about a seasonal stay in the country and the use of small volumes of warm water, then the potential buyer will be happy with the electric option.

After all, electricity is brought to many summer cottages, and as for gas, the situation with its availability can be more deplorable. And with rare use of the device, it will use up little electricity.

Instructions and practical advice

Regardless of the type of device purchased for heating water, you must carefully handle and use it for its intended purpose. Moreover, the operating features of all the same type of models are similar, but there are fundamental differences.

In order not to harm an expensive appliance with your ignorance, it is better to read in the instructions how to use a specific model of a water heater correctly.

Subtleties of operation of flow units

Differences in the appearance and device of flowing and storage models cause some nuances in operation.

Therefore, before starting to use the unit, it is important to carefully study the recommendations indicated by the manufacturer.

Instantaneous water heater tap
Flowing water heater tap can be used not only in the country, but also in a city apartment. It is easy to install and connect with your own hands.

The most common requirements that must be met before operating storage and flow models are as follows:

  • installation of a coarse filter;
  • strictly horizontal installation;
  • grounding for electrical appliances.

The horizontal location is checked by the construction level. Strict adherence to this rule will help prevent air congestion.

It is also important to consider that there are models that can be installed only horizontally or only vertically. If you neglect this rule, the equipment will not work at best, and at worst it will simply burn out.

Small models of flowing electric heaters
Small models of flowing electric heaters of vertical design easily fit into the design of the kitchen. Yes, and a lot of space 10-liter device does not take

There are also models that provide for the installation option at the user's choice - horizontal or vertical. The structural features of the device are designed for any position and this will not be reflected in further operation.

Flowing water heaters are produced by many domestic firms. Also on the market you can find a large number of offers from European and Chinese companies.

Overview top manufacturers devices for domestic heating of water is given in our other article.

The cost of units depends on the following factors:

  • brand fame and reputation;
  • the quality of materials used in the production;
  • additional equipment capabilities;
  • mechanical or electronic control type;
  • complete set of the device.

Regardless of the brand and cost of the equipment purchased, the buyer should have the manufacturer's instructions and a warranty card in which the seller noted the date of purchase and assured him with his seal.

Without these documents, a quality product cannot be bought. All bona fide companies must complete their instruments with this document.

Parts and materials included
Often in the instructions for the equipment you can meet the manufacturer’s requirement to use only the parts and materials that come with the kit. Otherwise, the user loses warranty service.

Flowing devices are mechanically and electronically controlled. The first option is more reliable. The price of such units is lower. The second option is more expensive and may have many additional features, up to the control of switching on and changing the temperature mode via SMS commands.

Features of the operation of a specific model of the water heater are given in the instructions. Among gas and electric options, consumers most often prefer the latter.

This is due to their greater safety, ease of installation and the ability not to coordinate installation work with special services.

In the case of the purchase of a gas flowing water heater, it is necessary not only to invite a qualified specialist who has permission to install gas equipment, but also to obtain permission from the relevant authority for installation.

In the future, it is necessary to call the wizard for regular monitoring of the state of the gas device.

Mechanically controlled devices
Mechanically controlled appliances are simpler. They break less often than equipment with an electronic control circuit

The basic rules for using water heaters are repeated by most manufacturers of flow-through devices. The most important thing is not to turn on faulty equipment with signs of damage.

If the heater fell from the wall and something broke off from it, in no case should you use it without a preliminary examination by a specialist.

When the equipment is correctly installed and connected by the master, the owner can adjust the heating temperature at his discretion. To do this, you can use special buttons, if they are provided for a specific model.

In some appliances, the temperature is controlled by the hot water tap on the mixer itself when the flow rate changes.

Operation of water heaters is allowed only to competent persons. Children cannot turn on the equipment themselves without adult supervision. Watering or dropping it is prohibited. All outlets located on the device must not be covered. This may cause a malfunction.

The use of a flowing water heater is possible only at a room temperature of at least 0 degrees. This rule is especially relevant for summer houses and cottages with periodic visits.

If unnecessary, the device should be removed, after disconnecting the remaining water from the mains and draining. Then it needs to be stored in a warm room.

Water faucet
Frost will damage certain elements of the device, which will be reflected in problems in the performance of functions. This case is not a guarantee, so the consumer will have to make repairs at his own expense

To use a instantaneous water heater, it is enough to set the desired water temperature once.In the future, the owner will simply open the tap of this heater and use warm water at any time of the day.

It will be correct to use a shower head and spout, which are included with the device.

It makes no sense to turn on / off the plug every day if you need to wash your hands. Disconnect the flow model from the network only with a long absence.

A photo selection will familiarize you with the features of the operation of instantaneous water heating equipment:

Rules for the use of storage devices

Accumulative models of water heaters can be both very small and quite large. In the first case, the tank is from 10 liters. Such equipment is convenient to install in the kitchen under / above the sink.

Dimensional models are hung on the wall or mounted on the floor. It all depends on the weight of the filled unit and the condition of the wall in the room where it is supposed to be connected.

You may also find useful information about do-it-yourself water heater installation.

Vertical storage water heaters
Storage water heaters are both horizontal type and vertical. Moreover, this rule applies not only to small boilers

Many manufacturers offer storage models that require gas or electricity to work.

The first option with constant use by a family of 5 people lasting 4-5 years will cost the total cost of buying, connecting and paying for gas 3-4 times cheaper than the electric option. Although, the cost of the unit itself in stores is somewhere 2.5-3 times cheaper than a gas appliance.

You can only operate the boiler, correctly installed and connected to the power supply network. The specialist who carried out all the work is required to put a mark on this in the warranty card and test the quality of installation of the equipment.

Without his signature and seal of the organization, in case of breakage, the guarantee cannot be used.

If everything is installed by the responsible master, then the owner can begin to operate the water heater.First you need to inspect the equipment from all sides and make sure that everything is intact, there is no visible damage, the wire with the plug has not melted anywhere and nothing is flowing.

If the visual inspection was successful, you need to fill the boiler or make sure that it is full. To do this, open the water supply valve to the unit and turn off the hot water tap. As soon as water flows out of the tap, the storage heater is full.

Now you can plug the device into a power outlet and press the “on” / “on” button on the housing. Management and adjustment is carried out by the corresponding buttons.

Depending on the model of equipment, control and adjustment of the desired temperature can be carried out mechanically or by entering the appropriate commands on the monitor.

The technical excellence of the device directly affects its cost. In everyday life, models with the most necessary functions and simple controls are most often bought. The simpler, the less damage in the future.

You may need information about self water heater repairconsidered in our other article.

Electronically controlled water heaters
In practice, electronically controlled water heaters do not tolerate installation in the bathroom. It is advisable to avoid installation in a room with a high level of humidity

It is important to follow all the rules described by the manufacturer in the instructions for a particular device during operation. Also, in no case do not include a broken heater.

If the external condition causes concern or there are signs of melting on the wiring or plug with a socket, be sure to contact specialists.

If the storage unit is the main source of hot water in the house / apartment, then, in order to save, it is not necessary to disconnect it from the outlet.

Thanks to the installed thermostat, the device will be switched on to heat water only if necessary. As soon as the water reaches the desired temperature, an automatic shutdown will occur.

Such work allows the most economical use of electricity or gas, if it is a gas water heater. It is advisable to turn off the equipment only in the event of a prolonged absence of the owner and all residents of the house, cottage or apartment.

Care and service features

Both storage and flow models need care and periodic maintenance.

A trouble-free service equipment can provide:

  • proper operation;
  • care;
  • timely service.

By following the instructions and recommendations of the manufacturer for the operation of the water heater, you can protect the equipment from accidental breakdowns.

The water heater is securely fixed to the wall
It is advisable that during operation the device does not get splashes of water, and he himself was securely fixed to the wall

As for care, all models, without exception, are extremely undemanding. It is enough to periodically wipe the dirt from the surface of the device. To do this, a soft rag or sponge soaked in soapy water is suitable.

It is impossible to water detergents with either storage or instantaneous water heaters. Also, if necessary, change / clean the coarse filter.

As for maintenance, all requirements are clearly indicated by the manufacturer in the instructions for the specific model. If this is gas equipment, then specialists from the corresponding service will definitely come to check it.

Electric models can be serviced independently, if this option does not contradict warranty conditions.

Some manufacturers provide that the installation, first start-up of equipment, periodic maintenance and replacement of spare parts should be carried out by a specialist company dealer.

He is obliged to put a mark on the warranty card about all completed work, certifying his signature with the seal of the company. Otherwise, the owner of the water heater loses the right to use the warranty card, if the need arises.

Internal device flow heater
Many home craftsmen neglect the warranty and carry out all installation, further maintenance and repair work on their own. This option is much cheaper for them than the call of specialists.

Maintenance of storage water heaters is most often proposed to be carried out once a year. Perform all the work yourself or invite authorized specialists - it depends on the manufacturer's recommendations. Do-it-yourself maintenance is often fraught with a loss of warranty.

For cumulative models, the following work is to be carried out annually:

  • clear the heater from scale;
  • remove sediment accumulated in the tank cavity;
  • assess the condition of the magnesium anode and replace it in case of wear.

All work is carried out with the heater turned off and unplugged from the network. In some cases, if there is water with a large amount of impurities, you will have to change the filter more often and remove scale. The magnesium anode can wear out faster.

You may be interested in step-by-step instructions for do-it-yourself heater replacementconsidered in our other article.

Cleaning the inside of the storage heater
The interior of the storage heater should be cleaned as plaque and scale build up on the walls and on the heating element.

If the storage unit is installed in the country and no one will use it in the cold season, it is imperative to take care of draining the water from the tank. Also, you must not forget before this device is completely disconnected from the power.

Maintenance of flow models of water heaters is also carried out as necessary. The frequency of these works will become clear during operation.

As soon as the water pressure has noticeably weakened and scale has appeared, it is necessary to clean individual elements of the device:

  • strainer or coarse filter installed on the water supply;
  • aerator tabs installed in the tap hole;
  • tabs installed in the shower head, if the appliance is equipped with this element.

Clean the outside and remove the filters only when the power to the heater is turned off. If you do not remove the plug from the outlet, you may get an electric shock when removing the coarse filter.

Boiler in the bathroom
For boilers that treat pre-treated water, a rarer maintenance operation may be necessary - once every 2 years

Ways to resolve hardware issues

During the operation of flowing and storage water heaters, certain problems may arise. Most often, this is the appearance of an unpleasant odor and mold flowing from the tap along with warm water.

This situation occurs when a low heating temperature of 40 degrees is set or for a long time they have not used the device. These are favorable conditions for the development and reproduction of mold and fungi.

To eliminate this problem and not set the maximum heat, you can select the economy mode, if this is provided for a specific model. In the settings of the eco mode, the boundary temperature of water heating is set at the level of 50-55 degrees.

The correct connection diagram
It is important to use the correct boiler connection diagram recommended by the manufacturer.

Secondly, you can not make a connection to the pipeline with hot water. Depending on the technical characteristics of the device, they are designed to work with water, the temperature of which ranges from 2 to 30 degrees.

This is the average range of acceptable values. For a particular model, the boundary values ​​of the temperature of running water can be, for example, from 5 to 20 degrees.

The third problem is when warm running water stops running when the instantaneous water heater is running. One of the reasons is problems with the pressure of the incoming water.

Some models require a special low-pressure mixer. If it does not meet the technical capabilities of the device, the shutdown mechanism is activated. The heater can resume operation only after normalizing the pressure.

Another reason is if the water supply to the water supply is shut off. To eliminate this is not difficult, you need to resume filing.

Fourth, too hot water can run. This problem in models with an automatic temperature control system indicates its breakdown and requires an urgent call of a specialist. For flow-through devices, it is necessary to increase the flow of water at the inlet or to clean the supply pipes.

Specialist equipment maintenance
If the owner cherishes the warranty service of an expensive device, then to eliminate any malfunction and annual maintenance will have to call a specialist

The fifth problem is too cold water that does not meet the wishes of the owner of the water heater. In this case, the accumulator units are likely to break the thermostat.

It will not be superfluous to check the set temperature, because one of the family members could change the minimum temperature for heating the water.

For flow-through devices, this problem may indicate a power problem. The second option is to increase the heating power.

After the end of the service life specified by the manufacturer, do not continue to use the equipment. It must be dismantled and disposed of.

If this is an electric model, then it is better to cut off the wire that is included in the network. Such a measure will protect against accidental use of the device by third parties.

Conclusions and useful video on the topic

Video clip about the operation of the flowing device - water heater tap:

Visual video instruction on turning on the storage water heater:

Detailed video on the operation of the Thermex storage unit:

A step-by-step video clip on eliminating a failure of a storage water heater that did not leak, but it stopped heating and the signal light no longer lights up:

Video explanations about the problems that arise during the operation of water heaters and how to solve them:

Having bought and installed a water heater, it is important to operate it correctly. Timely care and quality maintenance of flowing and storage devices will help extend their life.

In order not to lose warranty service, you should not violate the rules specified by the manufacturer in the instructions for use of a particular device.

Have you bought a new water heater and are worried that you can neglect the warranty? Or are you worried about a nuance that is not considered by the manufacturer in the instruction manual? Ask your questions in the comments below this article.

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Visitors Comments
  1. Sergei

    I am pleased with myself that a few years ago I did not stint and put an electric water heater with a temperature regulator. He calculated that a tank of 80 liters would be enough for three of us. The regulator is at 60 degrees - this is enough (but at the same time less energy is consumed than if it was heated to a boil). And I set the cleaning filter - we have hard water.

  2. Andrew

    A water heater helps us a lot in everyday life. This is a very convenient thing. I have an ordinary outboard water heater. Even 10 years ago, my uncle installed it to us and told how the equipment works. Very simple. When you turn it on at night, you open the tap to allow condensation to drain. Heats water for 2-3 hours in the summer, and in the winter for 4-5 hours. It works without problems, does not require special care. All perfectly.

  3. Fedor

    We put the water heater at 50 liters a couple of years ago and are very satisfied - an extremely useful thing. In our area, hot water is often turned off, set mainly for this reason. In addition, now the hot water shutdown season is not afraid of us. After installing the equipment, they explained to us how to use it, there were no problems with this. Heats water in a couple of hours, the whole family is enough.

  4. Vadim

    I am looking for an overview and a power supply circuit for a direct / direct heating instantaneous water heater.

    Attached photos: