How to build a Russian stove: do-it-yourself masonry, the best orders and schemes

Alexey Dedyulin
Checked by a specialist: Alexey Dedyulin
Author: Tatyana Zakharova
Last update: April 2019

The construction of a stove in a private house is a responsible and skill-demanding event, which is recommended to be carried out under the guidance of an experienced stove-maker. Only he knows how to build a Russian stove: choose the right masonry scheme, choose a brick, prepare a solution.

Even small miscalculations in the order can turn into a deplorable result, so you must follow the rules of work and regulatory requirements in construction.

The device of the Russian stove

The size, shape and design features of Russian stoves may vary. According to one of the definitions, this is a heating and cooking facility with 2 fireboxes, which, in addition to heating functions, is also intended to cook typical dishes and bake bread.

The process of burning wood in the main firebox occurs as follows: the gases generated during the burning of logs enter the 1 section of the sub-chamber, then through special holes - undercoats enter the 2 section. After that, they move to the upper cooking chamber, from where to the collecting channel and to the pipe.

Russian stove with two fireboxes
The scheme of the device of the Russian stove. The main firebox is needed for winter heating, the small one is used for cooking at any time of the year

When burning wood in a small firebox, the combustion gases first enter the main firebox, from it into the pipe. Here you can use not only dry logs, but also bark, wood chips, branches and other waste.

Elements of the Russian stove
The Russian stove has a lot of advantages, but it has one noticeable drawback: heat is generated at the level of the hearth, that is, at a distance of approximately 0.9 m from the floor, which prevents the heating of the lower part of the room

The foundation for the construction is a foundation, usually 0.1 m larger than the bottom of the Russian stove. Here, below, is the underfill - free space for storing poker, grip, shoulder blades and other equipment.

The crucible of a Russian stove with burning logs
The main part is considered to be a crucible - a cooking chamber with a hole (mouth) on the front side.The mouth may have a rectangular or arched shape. Through it, fuel (logs) is laid inside the crucible and dishes are placed with food

For the masonry of the cooking chamber, and in particular for the arch, the most fire-resistant, selected bricks are selected. The thickness of the walls determines how long the heat will hold.

The thin walls of the cooking chamber heat up very quickly, but cool as quickly. Standard thickness is 1 or ¾ of brick. The front wall is thinner - ½ brick, as is the partition in front of the furnace.

At the bottom of the cooking chamber is located under, for which a durable smooth brick is suitable. Often it is laid dry, without the use of a solution, onto a bed of coarse sand, to which crushed stone, gravel or broken glass is added. The hearth flooring is made with a slope of 3-5 cm towards the mouth.

The arch shape affects the degree of heating and the complexity of the masonry.

Vault building
For example, semicircular arches weakly heat under and unevenly reflect gases, but are considered lighter in the device with their own hands.

Flat arches are more difficult to lay, for the load distribution it is necessary to use steel screeds. However, with this design, the under warms up more.

The masonry technology of the arch of the Russian stove may vary, but often observe the following rule: lay it out simultaneously from 2 sides and finish in the middle. A castle brick is laid in the center, for the coating of which a clay solution is used.

Pot in a Russian stove
The cooking chamber is arranged taking into account that the fuel can be laid close to the mouth - the combustion is more efficient. Pots and trays are also placed on underneath the mouth

If they bake bread, then they clear it under - they dig out the ash, and sweep away its remains.

There is still a way to bake bread without baking sheets and forms, when it is placed on a special shovel, lightly sprinkled with flour, and then “put in the oven” - simply dumped with a sharp movement on the under.

Construction: preparation and laying

To protect yourself from all sorts of risks associated with fire, as well as from the claims of the fire inspection, we recommend that you use the rules and regulations set forth in the legal documentation when erecting a structure:

  • SNiP 41-01-2003 - section on heating;
  • SNiP 23-02-2003 - on thermal protection;
  • SNiP 3-01-01-85 - general building codes.

Materials for the construction of the furnace must also comply with safety standards and fire regulations.

Choosing a place for masonry

Traditionally, a furnace arrangement is chosen so that the mouth faces the window and is well lit. The building can be located in the center of the room, and against the wall, in the corner.

If the walls are wooden, they must be protected with non-combustible material - for example, steel sheets or asbestos boards. In this case, the brickwork should be placed no closer than 0.2 m.

Russian stove near the wall
The distance between the furnace and the walls of the room is also necessary for the annual audit, which must be performed before the start of each heating season

Sometimes the building is placed in a wall between two rooms. To protect the wall or partition, you can use brickwork with a thickness of about 0.2 m or lining with non-combustible material.

Russian stove in the center of the room
The central location of the Russian stove allows you to increase the heating area: a heated structure can heat two adjacent rooms at once, for example, a kitchen and a bedroom

You can use this option, when a large firebox goes into the kitchen, a small one - into the next room. It used to be practiced in five-wall houses with a “summer” hut, in which the furnace of a large stove with a stove bench was not used for a warm season.

Preparation of tools and materials

Masonry appliances and tools are prepared in advance so as not to be distracted and rush to search for them at the most inopportune moment.

The main tool of the stoveman:

A plumb line and a building cord can also be useful - for accurate adjustment of the corners and walls of the structure vertically, the rule is for leveling the foundation, a folding steel meter for marking and leveling. For safety reasons, we recommend that you wear protective clothing, comfortable shoes and gloves before work.

The materials and their quantity depends on the chosen furnace model - with a heating panel, stove bench or hob.

The table of necessary materials may look like this:

Table of materials for the construction of the furnace
Particular attention should be paid to furnace appliances made of metal (steel or cast iron): doors, grates, views, valves, dampers, cast-iron plates

The advantage of cast iron over steel is obvious: it does not rust, does not burn out, practically does not deform under the influence of high temperature, and keeps heat for a long time.

When buying doors and gate valves, make sure that the former close smoothly and tightly, while the latter slide easily in the canvas. Previously, the dimensions of the devices were subject to standards, for example, clean doors had dimensions 112 * 150 mm. Today you can find equipment of various shapes, lengths and widths.

How to prepare a solution?

According to the main material, solutions are divided into clay, cement, lime.

Clay mortar for the construction of the furnace
Clay is considered traditional and most suitable for the installation of such parts of the furnace as the furnace. Modern formulations are usually of a mixed (complex) type and, in addition to the binder component, include aggregates

When designating, the binder component is in the first place, the aggregate in the second, for example, 1: 1 or 1: 2. Complex solutions are indicated in three parts, for example, 1: 2: 6, with two binders in the first place, the last placeholder. The brand of cement mortars depends on the brand of cement used.

The finished solution should have the following qualities:

  • plasticity, convenient for drawing and distribution;
  • thick enough to prevent spreadability;
  • normal density, neither skinny nor fat.

Here the general rules apply: too thin solutions are considered weak and short-lived, and fatty ones crack after drying.

Clay mortar for masonry furnace
Experienced craftsmen have their own secrets for the preparation of furnace solutions, many of which adhere to traditions and use the familiar clay and sand composition that has been proven for centuries

The most difficult part in preparing a clay solution is to find a suitable grade of clay. It must be oily, so that the composition turns out to be elastic, convenient for laying and creating neat, even seams. It sometimes takes years to select the right proportions - this is another reason to work under the guidance of an experienced craftsman.

Beginners choose the composition of the solution empirically. First, clay is cleaned of impurities before kneading, then soaked in water for 24 hours.

The same servings of clay are mixed with different servings of sand, form cakes and allow them to dry for 2-3 days. Subsequently, the proportions that give the least cracks are used to prepare the solution.

To give the clay mass a suitable texture and uniformity, it is soaked and then wiped through a mesh with a 5 mm mesh.

When installing a furnace, instead of sand, it is required to add fireclay powder 1: 3 or 1: 4 to the refractory clay. You can use a masonry compound prepared in the factory.

For laying chimneys and chimney rotors within the house, a lime-cement or lime-sand mixture is used. In the construction of the pipe above the roof, cement mortar or lime-cement composition is used.

Basic principles of ordinal masonry

For the device of the Russian furnace, it is recommended to use solid refractory bricks without cracks and chips. The thickness of the gaps between adjacent rows filled with a solution is from 0.5 to 0.8 cm.

Different sections of the furnace can be made by laying in a whole brick, placed on a rib or laid flat, as well as in ½ (equal to the width) or ¼ (equal to the edge) of the brick.

Oven angle dressing
Bandaging the corners most often looks like a successive interweaving of two sides - the “spoon” (long rib) and the “poke” - short rib

We suggest using the schemes and descriptions to get acquainted with the ordinal masonry of the Russian stove. The dimensions of the proposed option are 1.45 * 1.28 m (i.e. 6 bricks in a dyne and 5 - in width).

Sectional view of a Russian stove
The scheme of the Russian stove in the context in two main positions. Masonry is done in 32 rows, the first at floor level, the last in front of the chimney

The foundation is laid in the soil, on which the construction of the structure depends. At a depth of 12 cm from the floor lay a two-layer waterproofing (for example, 2 pieces of roofing).

Brickwork Patterns
Sectional masonry schemes. Two rows of bricks are laid to the floor level in the flat position - this is the upper ceiling of the foundation

The first layer of the masonry of the furnace also consists of bricks laid flat.

1-4 rows lay out according to the diagrams below, while in the 4th row it will be necessary to fix steel strips and blower doors (3 pieces).

Scheme 1-4 rows

5 row differs by the installation of a grate, which is necessary to remove ash from the cooking furnace into the blower opening. Under should be laid out only from refractory bricks.

Scheme 5 rows and scheme 6-11 rows:

5 row and 6-11 rows

6-11 rows spread according to one scheme with some differences:

6 row - installation of the main door of the furnace,

10 row - installation of a blow door for a small firebox,

11 row - grate to remove ash from a small firebox.

12-17 rows - additional installation work:

12 row - door of a small firebox,

13 row - 2-burner hob made of cast iron (0.71 * 0.41 m), material - refractory brick and steel strips for reinforcement. After that, lay out the arched openings of the inner, and then the outer cooking chambers,

15 row - refractory bricks put in position on the edge, set the door for the cooking chamber (0.45 * 0.45 with a latch), the rest of the bricks are laid flat, alternating with steel strips.

17th row - lay out from laid flat bricks, then 5 rows - a pipe, while a sheet of asbestos is laid between the last row and the ceiling.

Row diagrams from 12 to 17 (3-3), from 17 to 22 (4-4), from 22 to 27 (5-5):

Schemes of rows 12 to 27

Above the main structure of the furnace passes a pipe lined with 5 bricks (flat position). For strength, it is connected to the dressing. Thus, 32 rows are obtained.

The furnace with a boiler and a stove bench

In addition to the simplest version with two fire chambers, complex Russian stoves are built with their own hands with a stove bench, a boiler for heating water, with a flooding or fireplace. Consider the order of popular solutions that can be used for self-construction.

The ordering greatly simplifies the masonry, as the graphic image and description of each row shows how exactly the previous row differs from the next, what elements are needed at all stages.

Let's consider schemes for construction Russian stove with boilercreated in a computer program.

1 row sets the location of the entire structure, it is made solid of refractory bricks laid flat.

1 row order
Before laying, you need to make markings, build a foundation, put a layer of waterproofing. It is better to lay out all the elements on a dry first, in order to clarify the dimensions of the furnace

2 row - beginning of the construction of compartments.

The construction of the walls of the furnace
First, lay the bricks that make up the walls of the furnace, then - a series of internal partitions. Bricks should be laid strictly according to the drawing, measuring each row with a level

3 row - the design of two chambers, cleaning and blowing.

The beginning of the construction of cameras
Opposite the cameras, cast-iron doors are installed. For fixation, a wire is used, which at one end is inserted into the ears of the products, the other is laid in the seams between the bricks

4 row - closing the hearth.

Closing of channels and hearth
One chamber inside the structure - under - is closed by flat bricks. In the same way, the internal channels at the walls overlap

5 row - grate.

Grate installation
A large firebox is equipped with a grate, at the same stage another door is installed - for a small firebox. The internal masonry is carried out with fireclay bricks without the use of a solution

6 row - hot water tank.

Installation of a hot water tank
A rectangular-shaped tank made of galvanized steel and designed to heat water is installed on the side, but so that the approach to it is open

7 row - reinforcement of the side wall.

Wall reinforcement with steel screed
The wall coupler is produced with a steel strip. At the same time, a door is installed for the main firebox and a grate for the small one. Gaps in the interior increase heat dissipation

8 and 9 row - output channels.

Masonry of internal channels
The laying of internal channels is carried out strictly according to the scheme and level. Here they also install another door - already for a small firebox

10 row - the union of the arches of the main and small fireboxes.

Disguise a hot water tank
Here, the bottom of the furnace is laid out solidly. The water tank closes completely. Only openings for the passage of heated air to the cooking chamber are left open.

11 row - installation of the hob.

Cooktop mounting
The best place for installation is on the edge of the front wall, above the doors to both combustion chambers. A steel angle of 50 * 50 mm is suitable for fixing the plate. In the back - grate

12-13 row - the design of the walls of the hob.

Cooktop Walls
At this stage, the construction of the chimney begins. A metal shutter should be installed between the chimney and the furnace, closing the hole if necessary

14 row - entrance to the pipe.

Chimney design
The design of the smoke exhaust channel begins. The hole in it is opened using a damper mounted vertically. The rise of the walls of the furnace continues

15 row - arch of the cooking chamber

Stonework narrowing
The direction of the masonry changes - it goes to narrow to form and overlap the cooking chamber. Chimney Outlines Appear

16 row - reinforcement of the walls.

Steel plate tab
Masonry is done according to the principle of the 15th row, but for the reliability of the structure, steel plates with locking elements at the ends are laid in the seams

17 row - installation of metal parts.

The design of the metal frame
The back wall is screeded with a metal strip, the arch of the cooking chamber is further narrowed, steel supports are installed over the hob for subsequent masonry - a corner and a strip

18 row - the arch of the furnace.

Vault building
To create an arched arch design, either a template or a metal frame is used. Bricks are laid on a long rib - a spoon. Cooktop close

19 row - reinforcement of the internal partition.

Steel strip for the partition
To strengthen, as usual, use a steel bar. Along the perimeter of the arch lay walls that will serve as sides for further backfilling

20 row - backfilling with sand.

Sand for filling the vault
The space above the furnace is completely covered with clean sifted sand, which must be carefully insulated. Filling increases the heat capacity of the baking chamber

21 row - the base of the couch.

A stove bench of the Russian stove
In the back, the compacted sand and the walls adjacent to the arch are completely covered with masonry - this is the base of the future bench, the front is narrowed

22 row - installation of a metal part in the chimney.

Installing a part with a round hole
To increase the heating time, retain heat and be able to redirect gases, a metal element with a hole is installed in the chimney

23 row - chimney door.

Chimney door installation
To clean the chimney, you need a special hole, which is closed by a door, which is fixed to the wire. Removal of the annulus continues

24 row - installation of the shutter.

Installation of the chimney flap
A damper is required to adjust the thrust in the crucible and in the furnaces. First set the canvas on which it moves, and then the valve itself

25-26 row - narrowing of the masonry.

The formation of the upper part of the furnace
Two rows are laid out almost identically, the main goal is to block the space above the installed valve and form the top of the furnace

27-29 row - connection of an annulus and a chimney.

The finish row in front of the pipe
The laying of the main parts is completed, the construction of the pipe continues - to the level of cutting. Part of the chimney passing through the ceiling is strengthened not with clay but with cement mortar

The chimney is led out through the attic to the roof, an otter is arranged there and the adjacent zone is waterproofed so that there are no gaps between the pipe and the roofing material.

The main thing during construction is to observe the order of the Russian stove and monitor the quality of the materials used.

Operation recommendations

The efficiency of fuel combustion and the general condition of the furnace depend on the observance of operating rules, which should not be adhered to from time to time, but regularly.

Brick, like mortar, refers to "living" materials, which can become deformed with time from temperature extremes. Therefore, it will be necessary not only to clean, but also to cover the cracks so that condensation does not form and the heat capacity of the structure does not fall.

This is very simple, here is an example: over time, a gap of only 2 mm wide has formed around the valve. It turns out that in an hour it passes as much as 15 m³ of air heated to a temperature of 90-100 ° C, that is, about 10% of all the heat coming from the furnace.

Open oven door
Heat loss increases up to 40% if you simply open the door, and by 20-25% if you supply air through the blower

Repair and cleaning of stoves is done once a year, before the heating season. But chimneys need cleaning more often - about 2-3 times per season. Before starting the furnace, ash is removed from the grate to ensure free air access for efficient combustion.

Fuel is prepared in advance, as the logs must dry. To do this, they are stacked in woodpiles under a canopy and left for at least a year. Raw firewood is not recommended for use, since evaporating moisture settles on the walls and mixes with soot.

Firewood for the Russian stove
It is better if the firewood is the same length and thickness no more than 10 cm. So they burn out equally quickly and evenly, which is important for heating bricks

Typically, the furnace process takes from 1.5 to 2 hours.

Firewood is stacked in a furnace chamber in rows or in a cage, with a small distance between the logs. It is important that they burn out at the same time, as the heat will be greater.

For a long time, it is not recommended to heat the furnace for increased heating. So you can provoke the appearance of cracks, as a result of which you will need first cosmetic, and then overhaul - laying again.

Kindling of a Russian stove
For ignition, they usually use rapidly flammable materials: wood chips, paper, shavings. Before kindling, open all the flaps, view, door

As soon as the firewood ignites, the furnace is closed, and the blower is opened. Draft is regulated by the position of the valve or view.

Some more useful recommendations:

  • Bright red flames and black smoke indicate a lack of air - the flow must be increased.
  • White flame and hum in the pipe - excess air, it is better to cover a little blowing.
  • It is possible to stir logs only after they thoroughly burn out and form wastelands that let air through.
  • The firebrands are pushed into the center of the hot coals so that they soon burn out.
  • As soon as the coals cease to burn with a blue flame, they are distributed along the hearth, moving closer to the mouth.
  • For insurance against carbon monoxide smoke, the pipe is not closed for another 10 minutes to prevent carbon monoxide from entering the room.

If the furnace is heated with coal, then it is recommended to melt it with firewood.

When finishing exterior walls, remember that beautiful cladding can partially reduce the flow of heat into the room.

Conclusions and useful video on the topic

Video layout of the Russian stove with the order:

The process of disassembling the old and building a new furnace:

One of the variants of the Russian stove with the order:

If you build the Russian stove correctly, you can immediately get almost an “eternal” heating device, and excellent kitchen equipment for cooking. However, for this, the device must fully comply with the order, and the technology for laying bricks and mixing the mortar must comply with generally accepted standards.

And before you make a draft Russian stove, it is better to consult with qualified stove-makers.

Please write comments in the block below. Tell us how you built a Russian stove in your country house or in a country house. Ask questions, share information useful for interested topic visitors to the site, post thematic photos.

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Visitors Comments
  1. The most intelligible material on the masonry of the Russian stove, which I saw on the Internet. And at what price does it go approximately?

    • Pavel

      If you order the master, it will be released in 150-180 tr If you do it yourself, then 50-60 tr for materials. Although in different regions the price may vary.

    • Expert
      Alexey Dedyulin

      Oleg, people throw out clay when they drain dig holes and don’t know how to get rid of it. Sand on the quarry can be typed, if you have available in the region.

      The furnace is not quickly built, several rows a day, it’s quite possible to carry a little even on a passenger car. Again, a brick, if there is a heel laying, in the villages they break the ovens, in connection with gasification, you can agree, take a good one for a penny. No jokes, there is not so much fuss, and the savings come out substantial already on these details. By the way, we bought fittings, for example, in the same place, we were lucky - people broke an almost unused furnace.

      And another life hack. At the scrap metal collection points, at the price of metal for delivery, you can also find reinforcement. In the store, this will be 50 times more expensive. People break the stove, rent. It may be a reluctance to bother like that, but in fact, there’s just a couple of hours on the Internet to sit and go to a couple of places to find out.

      That's real, a stove-maker / fireplace maker, so he built 4 stoves and 3 fireplaces for people. About 9 years old they are already standing by people, they don’t complain. The main thing is to select material better.