Do-it-yourself garage oven: a step-by-step guide to design
In garages or workshops, in order to save money, often instead of an expensive boiler, a furnace is installed for working out: they process metal parts with their own hands, weld them and get a model resembling a "stove." However, when choosing a design for manufacturing, one may encounter difficulties. Do you agree?
We will tell you how to choose the optimal scheme and assemble an economical, but very effective heating device with your own hands. In our article, we have examined in detail popular options, the effect of which has been tested in practice. Tips for the construction and subsequent operation of the stove are given.
The content of the article:
What is oil mining?
Waste oil or waste oil is a product that remains as a result of the operation of an automobile engine. Motor, transmission or other industrial oil accumulates in large quantities at service stations, car workshops, as well as from ordinary car owners.
In the process of use, the oil loses its useful qualities, accumulates salts, slags, resins, the smallest metal particles, however, people have found use for such an illiquid product.
In small quantities it is used for household needs:
- lubricate a working tool (for example, chainsaws);
- impregnate wood (sleepers for railway lines);
- lubricate the rubbing parts of light vehicles (scooters, bicycles);
- used as a fire-fighting fluid;
- cover bitumen coated surfaces.
As at the end of the last century, mining is used as fuel for stoves installed in conditionally residential premises - garages, utility rooms, workshops.If you build a stove yourself, then with constantly replenishing stocks of used oil, space heating will be almost free.
Other effective ways to organize economical garage heating presented in an article fully devoted to this issue.
Why are used oil ovens popular?
The main reason for the people's love of home-made stoves is the low (or zero) cost of the unit itself and the fuel for it. Some homegrown master craftsmen make such heating devices as an experiment and at the same time a useful device.
With the advent of a home-made furnace on waste oil, the solution to the question of “building up” recycled materials disappears.
How does the unit work at working out? The process consists in splitting heavy fuel with impurities, which has a rather complex composition. In another way, the process in which there is a lack of oxygen and combustion of not the fuel itself, but its vapor, is called pyrolysis. Operating principle pyrolysis equipment described in our recommended article.
To start the process, it is necessary to evaporate the fuel, then heat the resulting vapors to a temperature of about + 300-400 ºС, after which the combustion will be carried out spontaneously. It remains to wait for the complete combustion of the fuel.
There are 2 schemes that are used in the independent manufacture of furnaces:
- filling the tank with oil and setting it on fire, as a result of which the vapors evaporate and begin to burn;
- the use of a burner, in which the three zones (pyrolysis, ignition and afterburning) are combined and make the combustion process more efficient, adjustable and safe.
The second scheme is more complex, requires serious refinement of the fuel and manufacturing accuracy, so we will consider simpler models from the first group.
Advantages of using an oil working garage stove:
- simplicity of design and maintenance of the device;
- fuel economy - about 1.5-2 liters per hour;
- lack of soot and soot;
- safety of storage of mining reserves;
- it is possible to connect an air or water heating circuit;
The compactness of the unit is also extremely important for small rooms.
Disadvantages are also available:
- the need for regular cleaning of the stove and chimney;
- Mandatory element - a vertically laid chimney with a height of at least 4 m;
- for furnaces with nozzles, only refined oil should be used (approximate cost of the filtered product is 8-12 rubles / l);
- one of the conditions for storage of mining is the plus temperature, that is, it is necessary either a room heated in winter, or a tank buried in the ground.
Before manufacturing / purchasing a finished oven or working boiler you need to consider all the pros and cons of home-made devices, and then make the final decision.
There are a lot of options for manufacturing furnaces for mining. They are made from metal blanks or used containers (cylinders), with pyrolysis and turbo burners, with drip feed or blow. We will focus on two popular models, which are more suitable for self-construction and assembly.
Sheet metal model
Unnecessary metal parts, cast-iron plates, steel sheets, pipes can often be found in garages and in the surrounding area. Among them, there are probably several items suitable for welding the stove.
For example, to make a simple model, you need the following material:
- old steel sheet 3.5 mm thick;
- a piece of steel pipe with a wall thickness of 4.5 mm;
- tin pipe for a chimney with a diameter of 110 mm.
In addition, you will need a tool that is usually available for any garage owner: a welding machine with electrodes, a circular saw with cutting and grinding discs, a hammer, and pliers. Mandatory - a set of working protective clothing for welding with glasses and gloves.
Before the welding process, we prepare part of the parts.
When part of the parts is prepared, we proceed to welding, but we do not remove the circular saw by any means - it can be useful for cutting or cutting off individual fragments.
To prevent rainfall and debris from falling into the chimney, we fix the cap on the end with screws. The safe height of the chimney is about 4 m. The combustion products discharged above the roof will quickly disperse in the atmosphere and will not harm people or plants.
After the completion of assembly and installation works, it is necessary to test and, if flaws are found in the work, try to fix them. We check the quality of combustion in the following order.
In the process of designing and welding, the following errors can be identified:
- too thin walls of chambers and pipes (rapid wear, inability to retain heat for a long time);
- not large enough hole for filling oil and adjusting the burning force;
- poorly selected installation location of the furnace;
- different diameters of the furnace pipe and chimney (you will have to use an adapter to connect);
- inaccurate sizes of parts for welding (seams will be loose and will not last long);
- ignition with gasoline - an explosion is possible, it is better to use solvents (white spirit and the like).
If you cook the stove according to the rules, it will last a long time and will easily heat a room with an area of 20-30 m². With organization options heating at work will introduce an article devoted to this difficult issue.
How to make a gas cylinder stove?
The second option, which has become popular thanks to a successful assembly scheme, is an oven made from an ordinary gas cylinder, cleaned of contents.
First we make a diagram of the furnace.
The volume of the cylinder is 50 liters. The wall thickness of the metal pipes is 4-5 mm, the internal section is 100 mm. For the partition between the two chambers and the manufacture of the visor, it is better to use pieces of metal sheet with a thickness of at least 4 mm. As a reservoir for the oil from which evaporation occurs, a brake disc is used.
Oil enters the evaporator through a ½ inch pipe. Part of the pipeline above the ball valve can be flexible to ensure ease of installation. The ball valve is installed so that it is always possible to emergency shut off the fuel supply. For the manufacture of the swirler selected a pair of metal corners welded together.
Next, consider how to make a compact waste oil furnace for a utility room or garage.
For heated air to circulate around the room, it is necessary install heat exchanger. This is a steel pipe with a diameter of 100 mm. The most suitable place is inside the housing, between the burner and the chimney. To hold the flame to the upper part of the heat exchanger, we weld a metal pad cut from a 4 mm sheet.
We arrange forced air supply using a duct fan. It can be made automatic by applying a thermal relay. To keep the heat better, we put a swirler inside the pipe - a structure of two welded metal corners, the shelves of which are cut and deployed in the form of blades.
It remains to make two doors, each of which has nuances. For the upper mandatory part is a strong lock, which provides reliable closing for the period of operation of the furnace. At the bottom of the second door, we make a gap so that air can flow freely into the housing and maintain the combustion of oil.
After manufacturing the furnace, we test. Pour a little oil into the pan, then put the same small piece of sponge soaked in solvent. Set the sponge on fire. The oil warms up, starts to evaporate, a flame appears in the burner.
Through the tube, gradually feed oil to the evaporator. If it is necessary to stop combustion, we shut off the mining flow (close both valves). As soon as the residues in the pan burn out, the combustion process will stop.
Schemes and rules for the manufacture of stoves for working out of the pipe given here. We recommend that you familiarize yourself with useful information.
Operating and Safety Rules
No matter how much they talk about the safety of makeshift stoves, they remain devices whose improper handling can lead to burns or tanning of surrounding objects. As a result, there are a number of prohibitions.
The following actions cannot be performed:
- use other fuels instead of used oil;
- use faulty equipment;
- install a heating device in a room without well-established ventilation;
- light a fire if the stove is not equipped with a chimney;
- block the hole in the burner;
- leave the room with a working stove for a long time;
- place flammable liquids or objects near the heated case;
- Spray oil or water on a hot surface.
Only adults, children or animals are allowed to use the oven during the operation of the unit.
As an interesting and original example of a working stove, we suggest considering manufacturing technology potbelly stove. This is also a very effective model, available for self-manufacturing.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
The process of creating and starting a heating device is much easier if all safety measures are taken and the nuances of manufacturing and installation are taken into account. We offer videos with useful recommendations.
Video # 1. How to start the oven:
Video # 2. Overview of the working furnace. Tips for use:
Video # 3. Tips on device and use:
It is quite easy to solve the issue of mining utilization by constructing a metal furnace in the garage. A home-made heating device that runs on cheap fuel functions no worse than purchased expensive models.
But if you are not confident in your abilities, it is better to seek the help of experienced craftsmen who are closely familiar with the nuances of the manufacture and installation of oil furnaces.
Those wishing to share their own experience in the construction of a stove for working out are welcome to leave comments in the block below. Perhaps you have information on the topic that will be useful to site visitors? Please write in the block below, ask questions, post thematic photographs.