Norms of room temperature: comfortable indoor living conditions
In our apartments, the microclimate is formed by several factors and room temperature is its most significant part. The temperature comfort of households is individual, depending on their gender and age. However, the difference in heat demand among members of the same family is small and amounts to 2-3 ° C allowed by SanPiN standards.
We will tell you how to determine the optimal temperature, how excessive cooling or overheating affects the well-being of people. In addition, we denote the parameters of a comfortable microclimate, as well as provide effective ways to maintain a normal temperature in the room.
The content of the article:
What determines the optimal temperature of the apartment?
Household comfort temperatures are dependent on the climatic location of the home. In the southern regions and in the northern regions, as well as in the western and eastern latitudes, the norm of house temperature will be different.
As for countries, their climate is also different. And since climate components, in addition to temperature, are atmospheric pressure together with air humidity, an acceptable thermal range is set by them together.
For instance, humidity of housing atmosphere: the high humidity inherent in hot countries requires higher values for the normal temperature of the home, because Heat-intensive, moisture-saturated air actively takes away the heat of human bodies.
The formation of temperature
Changes in the temperature inside the house a periodic change of seasons. It is always warmer in summer than in winter. In a temperate climate zone, the acceptable room temperature of the warm season is + 22 ... + 25 ° С, in the cold season - + 19 ... + 22 ° С. Given the duration of exposure, the seasonal temperature difference, outwardly small, still matters.
Finally, the temperature comfortable for a person in various rooms of the apartment is associated with his age and sex characteristics.
We note immediately - personal preferences for a particular temperature regimen do not mean health benefits. Excessive overheating, for example, refusal of air conditioning in the heat, or overcooling of a room due to a window open in the cold, will certainly harm the human body.
Maintained optimal temperature in the room should correspond to the temperature needs of households of different sex and age. For example, for women, a comfortable home atmosphere will be 2-3°With higher than for men - women are more thermophilic.
Young children need a room with a stable temperature in the range + 20 ° С ... + 23 ° С. Temperature changes are especially difficult to tolerate by an infant whose body is not yet capable of full-fledged (adult) thermoregulation.
For the room where the baby is, it is extremely important to maintain a stable temperature level of + 23 ° C ... + 24 ° C all year round, since a small child overheats and freezes much faster than adults.
The dangers of cold rooms
In medical terminology, hypothermia is called hypothermia - a condition that causes profound harm to the human body, contributing to the development of diseases of the nervous system and respiratory diseases.
Once in a cold atmosphere, our body seeks to block hypothermia by utilizing energy resources and dramatically increasing heat transfer. This works for a short stay in the cold.
However, with prolonged exposure to low temperatures, the body’s resources are insufficient to compensate for heat loss and the body cools below + 36 ° C.
A characteristic sign of hypothermia is trembling, stimulated by the body in response to cold - excessive muscle activity provides heat production. The hands and feet are freezing as the blood vessels in them contract to reduce blood flow and downplay the general cooling of the body.
A decrease in body temperature of less than + 35 ° C will cause a slowdown in the rhythm of the heartbeat, respiration and weaken mental activity.
Particularly dangerous is hypothermia in young children, whose body is physically smaller than an adult and is not able to quickly generate heat. A child’s body suffers from the cold much deeper than an adult.
Risks of overly warm rooms
With a hot room atmosphere, ideal conditions are created for the development of pathogens that cause infectious diseases, primarily skin and intestinal ones.
Hyperthermia affects the human body adversely, especially on the heart. In a hot microclimate of a room a person sweats, which is why it loses a significant amount of moisture.
Blood thickens and becomes “heavy”, requiring increased work from the heart to pump it into the blood vessels. With cardiovascular diseases, such loads will be extremely difficult.
Dehydration, caused by the body’s desire to balance external and internal temperatures, worsens the water-electrolyte balance of the human body, weakens the nervous system.
The excessively warm atmosphere of the bedroom contributes to the development of insomnia, interfering with the normal thermoregulation of the body. In a moderately cool microclimate, the body quickly goes into the deep phase of sleep, redistributing internal heat from the center of the body to the limbs.
Temperature standards of the apartment
State norms for seasonal temperature are established in GOST 30494 and SanPiN 22.214.171.12445-10.The optimal temperature conditions for the living rooms of the apartment according to the mentioned state standards is the range + 20 ... + 22 ° С in the winter and + 22 ... + 25 ° С in the summer.
For technical rooms at any annual season, temperatures are determined by the range + 19 ... + 21 ° C for the bathroom and kitchen, + 24 ° ... + 26 ° C for the bathroom and + 16 ... + 18 ° C for the pantry.
Understanding the difficulty of keeping the temperature state of the microclimate within 2-3°Under optimal conditions, the developers of these standards in their textual part indicated the permissible ranges of room temperatures, namely:
- living rooms - + 18 ° С ... + 24 ° С in the winter, + 20 ° С ... + 28 ° С in the summer;
- kitchen and bathroom - + 18 ° С ... + 24 ° С;
- combined bathroom - + 18 ° ... + 26 ° C;
- pantry - + 12 ° С ... + 22 ° С.
Obviously, the permissible upper temperature range for non-residential premises, for example, + 24 ° С for a bathroom and kitchen, is oriented according to state standards to a warm annual period, and the lower, for example, + 12 ° С for a pantry - for a cold period.
Comfort microclimate parameters
Gostovskie standards are more intended for designers, housing and communal services and judicial procedural departments, since they establish the mandatory temperature order for residential premises.
However, the full formation of a home microclimate requires attention to the recommendations of experienced doctors and psychologists, to the individual preferences of households.
Bedroom. The human body needs a dream not only because of fatigue during the wakefulness period - to produce the hormone melatonin, which controls the biorhythms of our bodies.
The lack of acceptable conditions for sleep and, accordingly, the hormonal activation of melatonin, results in insomnia and a “broken” state - general weakness and headache, and a slowdown in the mental functions of the brain.
For a complete rest of adult households, the temperatures in their bedrooms should be maintained in the range + 17 ° С ... + 18 ° С, i.e. The "sleeping" microclimate should be cooler than other living quarters. In a warmer, as well as in a cooler atmosphere, it is more difficult to sleep.
Children's room. Its optimal temperature determines the age of the child. For a baby, the best are + 23 ° С ... + 24 ° С, because the baby’s body is not capable of “adult” thermoregulation. For children over 3 years old, the temperature will become + 21 ° С ... + 22 ° С.
The room of the kitchen. The work of household equipment from the usual configuration of the kitchen - stove, oven, electric kettle, microwave, hood, etc. - is always accompanied by heat. Accordingly, when cooking, the atmosphere of the kitchen becomes warmer than in other rooms.
With a traditionally small size of the kitchen, the heat radiation of the kitchen appliances warms it up pretty quickly. Therefore, it is enough to maintain the temperature of this room in the range of 18-19 ° C.
Bathroom. Bathing procedures are accompanied by intense saturation of the atmosphere of the bathroom with moisture, which is why the microclimate of a room with a temperature outside the range of 24-26 ° C will be uncomfortable.
For other rooms and corridors, a comfortable mode will be 18-22 ° C. The temperature differences between the rooms of the apartment should not be more than 2-3 degrees,
In winter, less heat is required; in summer, more.Otherwise, the temperature imbalance between the external environment (street) and residential premises will be stressful for the body.
A sharp change in the temperature of the surrounding space when leaving the apartment from the microclimate of the apartment may be followed by overcooling or overheating of the body, which, as discussed above, is equally bad.
The optimal difference in atmospheric temperatures of the house and the street during the transition between them is 4-5 ° C. Therefore, one should not overheat an apartment in winter or supercool in summer.
How to provide temperature conditions?
The tasks of maintaining the microclimate in the optimal temperature range are divided into two - cooling the atmosphere of the rooms in the warm months and heating in the cold season.
The first task is quite complete. air conditioning equipment, placed independently in bedrooms, living room and kitchen. The temperature sensors of single-unit and two-unit air conditioners (split system) will maintain the set temperature, strictly following the user settings.
More rational to use invert climate equipmentable to maintain the temperature of the indoor microclimate gently, without sharp emissions of cold air currents.
Until mid-September, split systems can operate on heat even in a temperate climate zone, but with an increase in the temperature difference “apartment-street” it will be impossible to use split systems for heating.
The task of maintaining a comfortable atmosphere in the house will go to the heating equipment - central heating radiators and underfloor heating systems.
It is not difficult to control the temperature conditions of the heating system “warm floor”. Liquid systems are equipped with a thermostatic valve, or an automatic pump and mixing group, equally capable of controlling the temperature of the coolant circulating along the circuit built into the floor.
In infrared and electric floors temperature control is carried out by digital, programmable or electromechanical temperature controllers. Constantly checking changes in temperature with predetermined threshold values, they turn off or turn on the system.
The classic heating systems of apartments, based on the circulation of hot water through pipes with radiators, also allow temperature control.
It will be necessary to equip the pipe at the coolant inlet to the radiator with an automatic temperature controller (thermostat) that controls the intensity of the hot water supply according to a given parameter.
Note that it is easier to complete the circulation-radiator heating system with battery thermostats when it is two-pipe version. For a single-pipe circuit, the pipe circuit must be supplemented with a bypass, which creates an outlet channel for the coolant in front of the radiator.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
On the significance of a warm room atmosphere for newborns:
Shut-off equipment for temperature control of heating radiators:
Proper climate control of the apartment using split systems:
The need to establish and maintain optimal temperature regimes in living rooms is important, because the microclimate of the apartment significantly affects the health of households.
A temperature imbalance exacerbates chronic diseases and promotes the acquisition of new ones, and normalization of the atmosphere by temperature, on the contrary, strengthens the body.
Share with your readers your personal observations regarding the parameters of a comfortable temperature at home. Tell us about ways to normalize the temperature regime. Please leave comments on the article, ask questions and participate in discussions. The contact form is located below.