Do-it-yourself heating boiler piping: schemes for floor and wall boilers
Autonomous heating allows you to not depend on the established consumption standards, pricing policies of heat suppliers and their mood. This makes it possible to independently control the heating process and maintain the most comfortable temperature in the house, saving resources at the same time.
And if you have a do-it-yourself heating boiler strapping, then it will last longer, and it will “take away” less financial resources, isn't it? But you have never been involved in strapping, and the word itself at first glance seems incomprehensible to you?
Do not be afraid of the abundance of pipes, devices and technological stages - after reading the article you will be able to do this job. Here, the tying schemes for floor and wall types of heating equipment are considered, visual photos and recommendations of specialists for tying at home are selected.
The content of the article:
- Choosing the power of the boiler
- Types of heating boilers
- Types and schemes of heating
- The implementation of the heating system
- Step # 1 - purchase the necessary equipment
- Step # 2 - installation of heating boilers
- Step # 3 - selection and installation of the expansion tank
- Step # 4 - installing the circulation pump
- Step # 5 - Automatic Air Vent Valves
- Step # 6 - selecting a location and mounting the collector
- Step # 7 — Pipeline Installation
- Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Choosing the power of the boiler
The piping of the heating boiler is a system of pipelines and equipment designed to provide radiators with a coolant. Simply put, that's all but batteries.
The first step is the choice of a heating boiler, the performance of which must be decided in advance.
The calculation of the required power of the heating unit is influenced by many factors, these are:
- building volume;
- number of windows and total glazing area;
- number and area of doorways;
- thermal conductivity of materials used in the construction of walls;
- degree of insulation of load-bearing structures;
- average annual temperature in the construction region;
- location of the building, i.e.which side of the world is facing the main, according to tradition the most glazed, facade.
However, there is an average indicator, which without in-depth calculations allows you to determine the required performance.
For the middle lane, starting point (but not a guide to action!) Can be taken as 1 kW per 10 m² of heated area. To the rated capacity of the heating boiler, it is necessary to add a margin of at least 20%.
Next, you need to determine the type of heating boiler: autonomous or manual loading.
Types of heating boilers
Conventionally, heating boilers can be divided into stand-alone and manual loading.
Autonomous boilers depending on the fuel used are:
The order in the list determines the cost of heating depending on the type of fuel: gas boilers will be the cheapest to operate.
Manual boilers include solid fuel boilers. Firewood, peat, coal are used as fuel. They require the participation of a person to load fuel.
Maintaining the desired temperature of the coolant is also a person’s responsibility.
Execution of coppers - floor. Equipped with a minimum set of automation. Heating boilers are single and double circuit. A water supply system is connected to the double-circuit boiler, which is built to heat hot water.
No. 1 - features of automatic boiler type
In most modern gas boilers for autonomous heating, the temperature of the coolant is automatically maintained.
Inside the unit there is a heat exchanger heated by a burner using liquid or gaseous fuel. The boiler temperature sensor constantly monitors the temperature of the coolant.
As soon as the temperature reaches the set point, the burner goes out and the heating stops. If the coolant temperature drops below a predetermined limit, the burner is ignited again.
Such ignition-attenuation cycles can occur quite often, there is nothing wrong with that.
The vast majority of installed heating boilers heat the coolant by processing gas or liquid fuel.
This is facilitated by the widespread gasification and high reliability of boilers.
Advantages of gas and liquid fuel boilers:
- ease of maintenance;
- many security systems, often duplicate;
- part of the equipment is included in the kit (circulation pump, pressure gauge).
Unconditional advantage lies in high efficiency, which is on average 98%.
There are also disadvantages:
- in the absence of electricity, the entire system stops, there is a danger of defrosting;
- high price;
- the circulation pump operates around the clock;
- can be used only in closed systems.
When installing an autonomous boiler, you must take into account the constant cost of electricity. The circulation pump works continuously, regardless of whether the coolant is heating or not.
No. 2 - solid fuel boilers manual loading
In solid fuel boilers, the loading and ignition of fuel occurs manually. Burning intensity adjustment can be made in a limited range. The operating time is determined by the burning time of the fuel of one load.
Solid fuel boilers are the most universal solution, their advantages include:
- independence from electricity;
- can be used in closed and open systems;
- low price.
Units of this type operate on the most affordable type of fuel.
There are significant disadvantages:
- usually come with a minimum set of equipment;
- require constant monitoring by the person;
- have low efficiency.
To solve traditional “winter” problems, one of the options may be to use two different types of boilers in the same heating circuit.
In normal mode, an autonomous boiler operates, and in the event of an accident on a gas or electric line, a solid fuel heating unit is manually started.
Such a scheme will not allow the heating system to become cold and freeze. The second option may be to use a special, non-freezing coolant - antifreeze.
The type of heating unit in many respects depends on the type of heating unit.
Types and schemes of heating
The purpose of the heating system is to transfer thermal energy from the boiler to the heating radiators. Energy transfer is carried out through the circulation of the coolant.
The heating circuit can be implemented in the following ways:
- open one-pipe scheme;
- closed one-pipe scheme;
- closed two-pipe scheme.
The two-pipe closed heating circuit is the most progressive, has the highest efficiency. However, it is the most expensive and difficult to implement.
When heating, in the heating system there is an increase in the volume of coolant, excess coolant is collected in the expansion tank.
When cooling, the reverse process occurs: the coolant decreases in volume, the heating system draws in the coolant from the expansion tank. By the method of organizing the expansion tank, the systems are divided into open and closed.
Open circuit heating system
With an open system, the expansion tank is open, freely communicates with the atmosphere. The general layout is as follows: the heating boiler is located at the lowest point, the expansion tank is at the highest, relative to the heating radiator.
The greater the difference in height between the expansion tank and the topmost radiator, the better.
The circulation of the coolant in the open single-pipe system occurs naturally, heated water moves or its mixture with antifreeze due to gravity.
Cooling the coolant becomes heavier, due to which it gradually falls to the lower level of the system. Heavy substance pushing lighter, hot heat carrier.
So they constantly alternate, i.e. the coolant moves along the ring of the heating system.
Such an organization of the heating system has its advantages:
- the simplest scheme;
- there is no need for electricity, because the coolant moves by gravity;
- poor sensitivity to emergency pressure increase (for example, when boiling).
The device with a natural movement of the coolant will need the least money, because it makes no sense to equip it with automation, bypass valves, a circulation pump.
Unfortunately, there are significant disadvantages:
- constant contact of the coolant with air, leads to gas contamination;
- the ability to cool the coolant in cold weather;
- relatively slow circulation of the coolant;
- it is impossible to achieve the same temperature of heating radiators;
- A large volume of coolant is needed.
With an open system, constant contact of the coolant with atmospheric oxygen results in increased corrosion of pipelines and radiators. The formation of various contaminants reduces the efficiency of the heating system in general.
With aluminum and bimetal radiators, such a system does not work well.
Open single pipe heating system is the easiest to implement and the least effective. It is applied with boilers of manual loading.It is used mainly for heating small private buildings in one two floors.
Closed circuit heating system
With a closed heating system circuit, the expansion tank is made in the form of a steel tank, inside of which there is a rubber bulb or membrane under air pressure. As the coolant expands, the pear shrinks and releases additional volume.
Forced circulation of the coolant allows you to warm up all heating radiators much faster and more evenly.
At the same time, the coolant through special vent valves once gets rid of all the gases present in it. Pipelines remain clean and corrosion does not occur.
The layout of the boiler and expansion tank it can be anything: the boiler can be in the basement or on the ground floor. An expansion tank is usually installed next to the boiler.
Advantages of a closed system:
- clean coolant;
- guaranteed circulation
- free location of equipment;
- minimum amount of coolant;
- small diameter pipelines.
Disadvantages of a closed system: constant overpressure, increased cost.
A closed, single-pipe heating system remains inexpensive enough to allow all types of boilers to be used.
Single pipe heating system
According to the way the coolant moves according to the pipeline scheme and the devices included in it, the heating systems are divided into single and double pipe.
With a single-pipe heating system, the main trunk of a large diameter — the feed — extends from the boiler. She acts as a conveyor of hot coolant and collector in a cooled form.
Two thinner pipes are connected in series to the heating radiators in series. One of them takes the coolant, the second releases.
The coolant passes all the batteries in turn, parting along the way with part of the thermal energy.
The one-tube category is divided into two subspecies:
- Flowing. In the flow diagram there is no supply riser as a structural element. The radiators on the upper floor are connected to their counterparts on the lower floor. Adjusting valves cannot be used in this scheme so as not to block the access of the coolant to the following devices.
- With bypass. According to this embodiment, the radiators are connected by risers, but are separated from the circuit by closing links. The coolant comes from the supply riser. It is distributed in portions over all devices into which it arrives at almost the same time, so it cools less.
The heating circuit with bypass allows you to adjust the temperature and repair a failed device without shutting down the entire system.
In this regard, the flow-through option loses in the same way as in the coolant cooling rate. But the flowing variety is easier to implement.
If a one-pipe scheme is used in a heating circuit with natural coolant circulation, there are no return risers at all, and only the upper wiring is used to connect the devices.
Two pipe heating system
With a two-pipe heating system, one line delivers hot heat carrier heated by the boiler. The second - receives and takes it chilled back to the heating unit.
The receiving pipe is called the feed; the collecting pipe is called the return pipe. Heating radiators are connected in parallel.
The coolant in the coldest radiator has the lowest temperature, so it presses harder than the others. The circulation of the coolant is the more intense, the greater the difference in temperature between the supply and return connections.
As a result, a cold radiator will warm up faster. Thus, the temperature in all devices connected to the same collector is equalized.
Pluses of heating with two pipes:
- the temperature setting of one radiator does not affect the others;
- hydrodynamic stability of the entire system;
- easily allows you to connect devices to adjust the flow of hot water;
- all pipelines can be hidden in floors or walls;
- high speed and efficiency.
Two-pipe systems are available with upper and lower wiring, with dead-end and associated transportation of the coolant. There are with its natural movement and with forced circulation, stimulated by circulating pumping devices.
In circuits with natural circulation, the boiler is installed
Of the minuses, the following can be distinguished:
- double number of pipelines;
- relatively high price;
- the need for shut-off and control valves.
A two-pipe system, despite its complex design, is the preferred solution, especially when used with stand-alone boilers.
If you do not resort to complex heat engineering calculations, then you can take advantage of many years of experience in construction in the middle lane.
For the construction of the supply and collecting mains, it is recommended to use two-inch pipes (Ø 50 mm) connected to the boilers. Racks are made of pipes of the same size.
Depending on the number of sections, the batteries are connected to the supply and return pipes 1,5ʺ (for 25-35 sections), 1ʺ (for 10-25 sections), 3 / 4ʺ (less than 10 sections).
When constructing an autonomous heating system with one or more boilers, to achieve maximum efficiency and a comfortable microclimate, a two-pipe system is suitable.
It can be used on any objects. It works with any type of heating radiators and any boilers. The choice of heating scheme depends on the desired price-quality ratio and the purchased heating boiler.
The implementation of the heating system
Armed with the necessary knowledge about the principles and advantages of each heating scheme, you can draw up the procedure:
- choice of heating scheme;
- selection of a heating boiler;
- purchase of necessary equipment;
For an open, one-pipe heating circuit, it is enough to have a thermometer (in the vast majority of cases, comes complete with a boiler) and an expansion tank, as a rule, home-made.
For closed systems, the minimum required equipment is similar and is discussed below.
Step # 1 - purchase the necessary equipment
The mandatory list of equipment for closed heating systems includes:
- expansion tank;
- overpressure relief valve;
- circulation pump;
- automatic vent valve;
- in the case of a two-pipe system, collectors (another name - combs);
When purchasing a heating boiler for autonomous water supply, some of the equipment may not be purchased. The equipment offered for sale, as a rule, is already equipped with a circulation pump, a safety valve, an expansion tank, and a manometer.
Step # 2 - installation of heating boilers
Heating boilers are produced in floor and wall versions. They are mounted depending on the version.
Among the wall mounted boilers there are turbocharged ones. These are boilers that forcibly remove exhaust gases and supply air to the combustion chamber.
In such boilers, ultra-efficient fuel processing takes place, as a result, the exhaust gases have a low temperature.
The removal of gases and air supply is carried out using a special coaxial pipe. The pipe horizontally with a slight slope is displayed on the street. The slope is necessary for the condensation to form on the street, and not inside the boiler.
The choice of the tying scheme of the wall-mounted boiler can only be closed, since all wall-mounted boilers are autonomous.
In all other boilers, including manual floor loading, exhaust gas is discharged into a vertical chimney. Part of the chimney facing the street must be insulated to prevent condensation.
For a floor, solid fuel heating boiler, a solid base and a platform of non-combustible material (iron sheet, ceramic tile) are required. The layout of the strapping of the floor-mounted manual loading boiler can be open and closed, one-pipe and two-pipe.
Step # 3 - selection and installation of the expansion tank
Even if an expansion tank is already installed in the heating boiler, it is highly recommended to install an additional one. The volume of the expansion tank is selected based on the volume of the coolant.
A good option for mounting the expansion tank is to install it on a standard comb, along with an automatic air vent valve and pressure gauge.
Before mounting the expansion tank, it must be pumped with air to the recommended pressure, usually 1.5-2.0 Atm. The installation of the expansion tank is best done near the boiler.
Step # 4 - installing the circulation pump
The need to use an additional circulation pump, its parameters are determined by hydraulic calculation. There are a few general notes.
The operation of the circulation pump is designed for a temperature of about 60 ° C. Therefore, it is advisable to mount the pump on the back pipe, with a cooler coolant.
Also, for safety reasons, if the coolant overheats before steam is formed, when the pump is installed on a straight pipe, the pump impeller will stop working, which will lead to even more overheating.
On the body of the circulation pump, the direction of movement of the coolant is clearly marked. The orientation of the circulation pump can be any, but the rotor must always remain in a horizontal plane.
Step # 5 - Automatic Air Vent Valves
Even with the formation of air pockets, a single valve will be sufficient to exhaust the gases. Sooner or later, air, dissolving in the coolant will exit through the valve. However, the dissolution rate is low and such a gas outlet can take up to several months.
Correct tuning is only possible on a fully airy system. In order not to wait for several months, it is necessary to install several automatic valves.
A good place to install automatic valves is on combs and manifolds.
Step # 6 - selecting a location and mounting the collector
The purpose of the collector is the distribution of the coolant among consumers. Consumers can be underfloor heating, radiators, coils in the bathrooms.
Structurally, the collector is a pipe segment with several bends. The number of taps must match the number of consumers.
For a two-pipe system, the number of collectors is at least two. For each branch, the volume of the supplied coolant is regulated.
When organizing the heating of a two-story or more house, a separate pair of collectors is made for each floor. If there are underfloor heating, a separate collector must be allocated for them.
Separate collectors are necessary for the following reasons:
- due to the difference in the hydrodynamic resistance of the pipelines between the nearest and far heating radiators;
- with various characteristics of consumers;
- for reliable configuration of the entire system.
Due to the different hydrodynamic resistance, it may be necessary to install an additional circulation pump in the circuit of the heating boiler, for example, on a collector of heated floors.
For ease of adjustment, the collectors are mounted in one place, in a special cabinet.
Step # 7 — Pipeline Installation
The next stage of arrangement is the installation of heating pipes. Depending on the type of system, this phase of work will be slightly different. We suggest below to consider the features of the assembly of the pipeline for single and double pipe systems.
Pipes for a single pipe system
For single pipe systems, the most common are steel pipes. A large selection of diameters and low cost make this choice preferable.
When installing pipes, a slope of at least 5 mm per linear meter should be observed. Aesthetically inclined pipes look worse, but provide reliable circulation of the coolant, even if the circulation pump is turned off.
Connection of heating radiators, in an open system, is carried out with a pipe of a minimum diameter of 32 mm. The forward and reverse lines are made of pipes of larger diameter, at least 50 mm.
Pipes for a two-pipe system
The two-pipe system does not require large diameters. The material of the pipes can be various: polypropylene, plastic, etc.
The main thing is that the pipes can withstand pressure and temperature. Since the two-pipe system does not require natural circulation, the pipes are hidden in an underground space or in walls. All pipes must be insulated to prevent heat loss.
The pipes connecting the collectors have a diameter of 20-25 mm., Connect the heating devices 16-20 mm. respectively.
Each pipe bend adds hydrodynamic resistance, and should be avoided if possible.The large difference in the hydrodynamic resistance of the branches of one collector will make regulation difficult or impossible.
After mounting all components, pressure testing is mandatory. Pressure should remain constant for at least a day.
If the heating system has successfully passed the tests, the binding of the heating boiler can be considered complete.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Comparative analysis of heating device options:
Examples of gross errors when tying the boiler:
Installation of a boiler room with a double-circuit gas boiler:
Correct connection of a solid fuel boiler for long burning:
At first glance, heating systems seem complicated. However, the principles by which the heating system works are very simple. A properly designed and executed system is able to work for years without any intervention.
If you have any questions about boiler tying or the nuances of connecting individual system elements, ask them in the comments. Or you recently did the strapping yourself and want to share new experiences with other people, please leave your comments on this material.