Solid fuel boilers: main types and criteria for choosing the best unit

Alexey Dedyulin
Checked by a specialist: Alexey Dedyulin
Author: Antonina Turyeva
Last update: December 2019

If economic issues relate to heating your own housing, it is better not to depend on anyone. To organize an autonomous system, solid fuel boilers are often chosen. They provide an opportunity to quickly reach a comfortable temperature in the room, while ensuring a significant reduction in the cost part.

You will learn all about choosing a solid fuel boiler from our article. We have cited and described the main criteria to accurately determine the most suitable option. Based on our tips, finding the right model will be much easier.

Types and rules for choosing a boiler

A solid fuel boiler is a good incentive to save money on heating. It happens that even with installed hot water meters, utilities send bills with overestimated figures.

Individual heating makes it impossible to depend on a centralized heating system and makes it possible to control the amount of fuel consumed. This is especially important when it is not about domestic use, but about heating the premises. Costs directly affect the cost of production.

Cost-determining factors

An autonomous heating system based on a solid type of fuel is a fairly practical way of heating small industries. Such boilers are used with a lack of electricity or lack of connection to the gas main.

The installation of such units is especially relevant in woodworking industries or in small workshops (solid fuel is all types of coal, wood, sawdust, etc.)

Solid fuel boiler for the home
Classic solid fuel boiler with extra protection. The ideal solution for private housing

The cost of the boiler itself depends on its design. The simplest option is an advanced manual fuel loading stove. In some models, automated filing is organized, but their cost is many times higher.

The materials used in the manufacture of the product, its heat exchanger (most often use cast iron) can also influence the increase in cost. The last factor that affects the price is power. A solid fuel boiler for a small house will cost less than one that can heat a mansion of 200 square meters. m

Cast iron and hardened steel are used as the main materials for the production of the boiler heat exchanger. The cast-iron boiler serves about thirty years and requires regular cleaning. Any solid fuel can be loaded into it, and the efficiency of these models is quite high. Which modification of the unit to choose depends on the parameters of the heated room.

Cast iron boiler
Cast iron boiler. Suitable for heating large areas. Due to its strength, it copes well with any type of fuel.

Steel boilers are cheaper than cast iron, but they practically do not differ from them - they have high performance at a lower cost. The steel alloy heat exchanger warms up faster, but also cools faster. When choosing any model, you need to take care of the fireproof security of the room where the equipment will be installed.

The entire range is presented in the form of single-circuit and dual-circuit models. Single-circuit ones are used only for heating, and double-circuit ones are still used for heating water (an additional heat exchanger is provided).

They are practical for installation in small houses where it is advantageous to have one heating unit, instead of several.

Steel boiler
Steel boiler. An excellent solution for private housing construction. Provides good savings on heating and hot water

With a large area, the installation of a paired heating system is possible. Such work can only be carried out by installers - without experience in carrying out such work, you may encounter additional costs for equipment and wiring throughout the house.

The arguments for choosing a boiler for a country house are described in detail in next article, the contents of which we advise you to read.

A little about brands of heating boilers

Users of heating equipment are very interested in equipment from Viessmann and Conord. So, the Italian brand of solid fuel boilers Viessmann stands out on the market for its ease of installation and the quality of assembly of finished products.

Costly boiler models
By installing large cast-iron crossbars, engineers give users the opportunity to load firewood up to 70 cm long. The initial price of such an aggregate is 75 thousand rubles

Russian products are the most popular in the domestic market. The company "Conord" is an excellent representative of it. Due to the large model range, it is possible to choose both an economical option and an “industrial” one for large areas.For domestic types of heating equipment, prices start at 50 thousand rubles.

Moreover, their units for autonomous heating no worse than foreign ones. Using modern equipment, Russian engineers create quite competitive options, sometimes surpassing their European counterparts in power and productivity.

This rule does not work for all equipment manufacturers. Most often, it’s more profitable to buy an aggregate of a European company, which belongs to the middle price category. In such models, quality and cost are most optimally combined.

About the intricacies of equipment selection

The main points when choosing before buying a classic solid fuel boiler or long burning, you can highlight the dimensions and functionality. For each type of room, you will have to select a boiler individually. Sometimes it still remains to rebuild it, taking into account the peculiarities of heated housing.

In order for the installation to be carried out in accordance with the technical instructions, everything should be done according to the recommendations of the manufacturer or seek help from specialists. It is enough to comply with all the specified requirements for the safe functioning of the boiler.

Operational Safety Precautions
It is important not to forget about fire safety measures. This should be remembered even at the stage of installation of equipment, and in the future - during its operation

When choosing a model, do not forget that solid fuel heating modules are divided into universal and specialized. The former operate on several or one type of solid fuel or combustible waste. Specialized, most often, are installed in places where there is only one type of fuel, or the presence of one is superior to the rest.

All solid fuel units are divided into 3 main groups:

  • traditional
  • pyrolysis;
  • universal.

Representatives of the first group produce heat by burning fuel (coal, firewood, etc.). This is the most common option on the market, very popular. In the pyrolysis modules, solid fuel is burned and additional gas is generated in this process. A second camera is provided for this.

Installation of such equipment is more difficult - it requires the installation of a high-quality ventilation system. Indeed, for the productive operation of the unit, an uninterrupted supply of secondary air is necessary.

As for the cost, it is higher in pyrolysis boilers than in traditional ones. But the productivity of the former is also higher - therefore, in the future, the initial cost pays off due to lower expenses for fuel materials.

But universal models operate on several types of fuel and are able to consume a minimum of energy to ensure the operability of automation equipment.

These are quite popular representatives of the trading line. They are often installed in public places for space heating. They are divided in turn into stationary and mobile options.

Pyrolysis boiler
Pyrolysis boiler. Its installation is somewhat more complicated than the traditional model - it is desirable that it be carried out by a specialist

ATpyrolysis boilers of the shortcomings can be noted volatility and an acute need for regular air intake. Inside such a boiler, not only fuel cells are burned, but also the gas released as a result of this process.

For its operation, an installed blower fan is required. This type of boiler, to a lesser extent, requires access to the chimney system. Their efficiency is higher, despite the power consumption. Choosing a pyrolysis model of a solid fuel boiler, you should immediately take care of the installation by inviting a specialist for this.

This product should only be bought from trusted suppliers - certified stores themselves ensure that all the rules and regulations are followed, and the buyer can save time, effort and financial resources.

New heating equipment
If the store employees do not want to provide additional installation services, transportation, etc. should contact the administration

Particular attention should be paid. long burning models - These are, as a rule, pellet boilers. Here, compressed wood waste products that burn for a long time are used as fuel.

These units have a special hopper, due to which it is possible to organize uninterrupted fuel supply. They can keep warm up to 3 days, do not require special attention, are equipped with additional protection, due to which they do not need to be looked after.

Modern and environmentally friendly equipment

Solid fuel boilers with the function of long burning are rightfully considered the guardians of nature. Burning filtration systems installed in modern models help clean smoke from combustion products by emitting only purified steam. The service cycle of a solid fuel boiler is about two months (cleaning, purging).

Equipment cleaning
For equipment cleaning procedures, it is better to call a specialized worker so as not to damage or disturb anything yourself

It is also appropriate to install such units in plants with a large amount of solid combustible waste. The process of disposal (incineration) takes a small amount of time, while it becomes possible to save additional funds on garbage disposal.

With proper installation, it is possible to provide heating of the working rooms, which will significantly improve the cost of production.

How to choose the optimal boiler model?

As for the rules for choosing the best option, here you should take into account the features of each specific case. It is necessary to carefully analyze your needs and compare them with the capabilities of your favorite models.

A solid fuel boiler is quite expensive equipment and selection errors can affect the quality of heating. At the same time, replacement is fraught with unnecessary costs.

To choose the right heating unit, you must first carefully measure and prepare the room in which it will be installed. Only after finishing and organizing the water supply system and chimney outlet, it is worth proceeding to the selection of a specific model.

Boilers for industrial premises
Pyrolysis models are suitable for industrial premises, as with large areas, in spite of their price, they “give” a greater effect of saving and payback

When choosing, you should take into account useful recommendations, among which are the following:

  1. Universality. For private houses, universal solid fuel units are best suited, where there is the possibility of combining and replacing fuel;
  2. The complexity of the installation. Based on the cost of the product, it is necessary to study all its capabilities and modifications (so that there are no problems with installation);
  3. Average price. Do not choose very expensive models. Often, in the middle class there are options that are quite suitable for home use;
  4. Repair and service. All possible repair and maintenance options should be considered immediately. The boiler room should have easy access at any time;
  5. Climatic conditions. At low ambient temperatures, the installation of a low-power boiler is unacceptable (even if at first glance it seems that it is "enough"). It is better to make a purchase with a margin, so that then you do not start all over again.

Particular attention should be paid to arranging a place for installation of solid fuel boiler. Fire safety requirements must not be violated. All necessary consultations can be read in the equipment manual, obtained at the store, or from fire experts.

It is important to use only refractory materials during installation. You should save on equipment only as a last resort. After weighing all the pros and cons, once again calculate all the details and only then make a purchase.

Considering models of heating boilersworking on solid fuels, you should immediately think about what type of fuel is the most affordable in the region. When it’s easier to buy wood, it’s most logical to install a traditional double-circuit boiler. This solution will save not only on heating, but also on hot water.

Safety precautions during operation of the boiler
Always remember the safety precautions. In the boiler room, at any time should be free access

Choosing a specific manufacturer, it will not be amiss to make sure that there are authorized technical centers in the region of residence or, at least, specialists who are able to work with similar equipment. A solid fuel boiler is an expensive pleasure, so you should think in advance about possible repair cases and outstanding situations.

In addition, do not forget that the boilers require regular maintenance, which will be the key to a long and uninterrupted operation of the equipment:

Most often, stores warn about the availability of warranty service, carried out on the manufacturer's warranty card. This point is important, because in this way you can count on qualified help without the risk of damage or permanent damage to the equipment.

It is important to immediately clarify questions about the availability of original spare parts and assemblies for the selected type of equipment, because in case of breakdown it is advisable to install components that are ideally suited for the work. So the heating unit will last longer.

Qualified boiler service
Qualified service is the key to the long-term operation of a solid fuel boiler

If you have difficulties with a choice, it is better to take the advice of people involved in the design heating autonomous systems and installation of equipment, or read the feedback from other customers. Comparing several points of view helps in making the final decision.

When buying, be sure to check the availability of certification documents confirming the quality of the goods. And also solve the issue of future equipment installation. Most often, delivery and installation services are provided by the seller.

It should be remembered that when planning the installation of a dual-circuit model in private housing construction, it is necessary to lay a water supply in advance. After all, the location of the heating boiler will depend on the placement and connection of pipes.

Also important in advance equip a boiler room, design a ventilation system, think over boiler piping and the location of the chimney for the removal of burning. And only after such preliminary preparation at home, you can begin to select the necessary boiler model.

Conclusions and useful video on the topic

Advantages and disadvantages of solid fuel equipment in the video clip:

Overview of new products on the market of solid fuel aggregates in the video:

In order not to make a mistake in choosing and buying a unit for heating your home - you should correctly assess your capabilities and needs.After all, the most expensive equipment will not always be better and more durable.

An option with an average cost may be more suitable, which will fully meet all technical requests. And in order to prevent mistakes in the calculations and selection of heating appliances, you should definitely consult with specialists.

Tell us about how to choose a solid fuel boiler for a country house or cottage. Share what became the main argument in choosing your model. Please leave comments in the block below, ask questions, publish photos on the topic of the article.

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Visitors Comments
  1. Gregory

    It, of course, in words a lot of good can be said about solid fuel boilers. But I’ll tell you this - I set it to myself out of despair. If there was gas, I would never have become a stoker. He took a long-burning boiler, on all types of fuel.
    There is no question of saving, coal has risen in price strongly, and its quality is terrible, firewood is also a problem to buy, so that they will be honestly measured. Pellets from sawdust were at first cheap, but now they have risen in price.
    Plus, they still need to be loaded once a day at full load, 100 kg, remove the ash, clean, make sure that it does not boil, and all that.
    This is a troublesome business, and as for saving, it’s just past, maybe these are some particularly expensive boilers with automatic equipment that are economical, and mine is also that sperm whale.

    • Interesting. And what kind of boiler did you purchase if this is not a secret? Many do not understand that it is better to overpay directly when buying a boiler, even twice. But then get a good efficiency of the heating device, and with it both fuel economy and time saving (you won’t have to run to load it often).

      My situation is simpler - I live in Siberia, and although the climate is harsh, there are no problems with either wood or coal. Everything is relatively inexpensive and of decent quality. Yes, it cannot be compared with main gas for convenience and price, but still the best is the rest. But we also do not have gas. “Gazprom - dreams come true” is so far only in advertising.

  2. When choosing a boiler, I would initially start from the availability of a particular type of fuel. If there are cheap options for obtaining firewood, sawdust, coal or peat, then a solid fuel boiler will be very profitable.