Sewerage in a private house: an overview of the options for arrangement + a step-by-step guide

Nikolay Fedorenko
Checked by a specialist: Nikolay Fedorenko
Author: Julia Oschepkova
Last update: August 2019

It is hard to imagine a country cottage without a civil toilet and a cozy bathroom. But not every village is equipped with a waste collection system. Therefore, sewerage in a private house is performed separately. Not sure which system to choose? This article will tell about all the features of the sewage system in a private house.

We described possible ways of organizing waste collection, identified their features of arrangement and use. And they also provided step-by-step instruction on drawing up a project, installing a sewer pipeline, installing a septic tank and a drainage well.

Types of sewage systems

There are several types of waste collection systems: central, storage, drainage, filtration.

Central. The sewer of the house is connected to a common sewer network, through which organic waste is collected in the city sewer.

Further, the effluents are filtered, passing several degrees of purification and already safe water gets into the local reservoir. For use, the homeowner pays money monthly.

Central sewage system
Depending on the distance of the central pipeline to the house, a decision is made on the feasibility of using an autonomous or central sewage system

Funded system - modern prototype cesspool. The main difference is the complete tightness of the waste collection point. It can be: concrete, brick, metal, plastic. To do this, a moat for a container is dug out on a plot of land remote from the residential building.

The principle of operation of the storage system is reduced to the discharge of organic compounds into a sealed container. When it is full, the contents are pumped outcesspool by car.

This scheme of individual sewage in a private house has gained wide popularity due to its low cost.

Septic tank with drainage well
The simplest installation scheme is a septic tank with a drainage well. It represents a kind of middle ground between construction costs and the frequency of cleaning (+)

Draining septic tank The waste collection process is similar to a storage tank. The only difference is the lack of a tank bottom. This allows the settled water to go into the ground through a draining pad. The drainage well is made of concrete or red brick.

Filtration units mounted in areas with high water consumption. The whole system has from 1 to 4 tanks located underground. The first three tanks are used for collecting and sequential cleaning of organics. The last tank performs the final cleaning.

In fact, the filtration unit combines the elements of the three previous types of sewerage. Depending on the manufacturer, the installation elements are equipped with different cleaning systems, allowing for local conditions.

Septic Tank
Filtration septic tank. Such an installation occupies a large area of ​​the site. A high percentage of cleaning will not require the call of trash cans in the next 10 years (+)

If you are building a country house and puzzling over how to equip the sewers, we suggest that you familiarize yourself with the stages of installing the most effective and affordable system - a septic tank with a drainage well.

Stages of arrangement of the sewage system

Before installing the sewage system in a private houseneed to draw up a project. It includes a working drawing, which indicates the size of the plot, marks the boundaries of a residential building and surrounding buildings. After this, a septic tank is located, with the obligatory taking into account the rules of the neighborhood.

Sewerage installation works include the following stages:

  1. Sewer system planning.
  2. Installation of the pipeline in the premises of the house with a conclusion to a single drain.
  3. Arrangement of a collection tank for organic sewage with a drainage well.
  4. Laying the central pipe from the house to the tank.

If you plan to install a sealed tank, the last step is excluded.

Stage number 1 - drafting

There are several determining factors, the analysis of which allows you to choose a suitable sewer system: the type of soil, the relief of a suburban area, the volume of water consumption, the level of groundwater, the neighborhood, the location of residential and utility buildings, the presence of a well with clean water.

We consider each item in more detail.

We take into account the type of soil and relief

Each type of soil has individual characteristics.

What you should pay attention to:

  • heaving;
  • freezing depth;
  • humidity;
  • moisture absorption.

Soil type is important for the drainage system. For example, clay is very poor in moisture permeation. But chernozem on the contrary is good. This parameter is taken into account when determining the area of ​​the filtering surface.

Pipe laying depth
Freezing depth plays an important role when installing a sewer from a cottage. To prevent ice plugs, the pipeline is insulated

If the house is located on a site with a broken profile, i.e. there are large differences in the level of the earth's surface, the septic tank is located in the lowland. Neglecting this rule will cause partially contaminated water to seep to the surface. The result is severe pollution by the sewage of the site.

We consider the volume of water consumption

The volume of water consumption is important when arranging an individual sewage system.

The volume of water consumption is affected by:

  • Duration of pastime in the house - the main housing or summer cottage;
  • number of people in the family;
  • number of storeys of the cottage;
  • number of household appliances.

To calculate the exact figure, you can refer to the directories andSNIPs. Consumption norms are indicated there, calculation formulas and coefficients are given.

In order not to recall the course of mathematics, use the online calculator presented on our website. Its calculation algorithm complies with all the rules of current regulatory documents.

For a family of 4 people living on a permanent basis, using a restroom, bathroom, as well as a washing machine and dishwasher, the daily volume of wastewater is 1 m3.

We take into account groundwater and neighbors

The installation of a draining septic tank is possible only if from a bulk filter pad to a bed of water more than 1 m. If this distance is less, organic waste will certainly fall into the aquifer.

The solution to this problem lies in the organization of a sealed septic tank. You have to spend money on pumping sewage, but there is no other way.

An alternative to a collection tank is the installation of a forced filtration system. Such a complex is equipped with several levels of treatment. After a complete filtration cycle, water is suitable for technical needs - watering, etc.

Also, before digging a pit for containers, you need to decide on its place. RequirementsSanPiN strictly determine the distances at which the septic tank is removed from houses, household structures, trees, sources of drinking water, as well as water bodies.

The location of the septic tank on the site
The neighboring plot is not indicated on the diagram, but according to regulatory documents, there should be at least 3 m from the edge of the tank to the fence

Compliance with these standards is the responsibility of every homeowner. If you violate the rules of the neighborhood, in addition to the penalties that you will definitely receive, you can harm your own health.

Stage No. 2 - installation of the internal pipeline

A good drainage of water, first of all, depends on the arrangement of the inner pipeline of the cottage. After installing the sanitary fittings, it will need to be connected to a single sewer pipe, through which the effluents will go to the treatment tanks.

Pipeline installation

The first thing you need to decide on type of pipe. It is better to purchase products made of polyvinyl chloride (PVC), since cast iron and metal options require welding.

The process of electric welding of pig-iron pipes for an inexperienced layman can become a "stumbling block" on the way to a positive result. Cast iron is a brittle metal, and a sharp cooling of the butt weld will inevitably lead to the appearance of microcracks.

Plastic pipes have a lot of advantages, including:

  • light weight;
  • ease of installation;
  • affordable price;
  • large selection of adapters and bends;
  • inertness to aggressive environments;
  • durability.

Installation begins with the kitchen. The farthest point, usually this place for installing a kitchen sink, is located above all subsequent ones.

The last to connect a toilet (toilet), the drain pipe of which is located closest to the central drain.

PVC pipes
Thanks to a large selection of PVC fittings, installation is very fast. The presence of a seal must be checked in stock before checkout

It is advisable to combine the kitchen and bathroom into one riser. To connect all water discharge points except the toilet, a pipe with a cross section of 50 mm is used. For the toilet - 110 mm.

The value of the angle of inclination depends on the diameter of the pipe. For 50 mm, the height difference of two points 1 meter distant from each other is 30 mm. This value is strictly fixed in the regulatory documentation.

At a smaller difference, the water will stagnate. With a larger value, solid fractions will stick to the walls of the pipe, and due to the increased discharge rate, the probability of the closestwater seal.

Water lock
A water trap is a natural barrier to prevent air from entering the sewage system visas. In his role can be a siphon for the sink

Detailed information on the layout of sewers in a private house is presented in this article.

Arrangement of pipe ventilation

An exhaust sewage system is designed to balance the negative pressure inside the pipeline. Due to the connection of sewer pipes with the atmosphere, the system is aligned.

As a ventilation system is used:

Fan hood is a continuation of the central riser. It is led out over the ridge of the roof at a distance of 30-50 cm.To protect against rainfall, a deflector is attached to the output, which further enhances traction.

Installing a fan hood for a private cottage is extremely impractical. Such a system will require insulation of the pipeline, as well as the allocation of a separate ventilation duct in the partitions.

Air valve - perfect option. It is easy to mount in the pipeline. The device is installed directly in the room. The valve is equipped with a soft rubber membrane that only lets air in.

For a two-story house, one device is enough. The valve is mounted on the second floor.

Plumbing connection diagram
Scheme of connecting waste water discharge points to the central pipe. The difference in the connection height of the outflow of the dishwasher and the toilet determines the total angle of the pipe

Stage 3 - installation of a septic tank

If you decide to make a sewage system in a private house with your own hands, then it is better to install a septic tank of concrete rings or a ready-made plastic tank.

The volume of the container for the collection and sludge of organic waste is determined by calculation. Be sure to add an extra cube. The pipe insertion point is located at a distance of 2/3 from the upper edge of the septic tank, so it does not fill to the top.

Septic tank device

The first step is to dig three pits to install the tanks. To save time and financial costs, it is advisable to combine two settling tanks into one.

The bottom of the dug pit should be strengthened with a concrete base. Concrete cannot be placed on the ground, so pour a layer of rubble 20 cm thick.

For the base device, the formwork from the construction board is exposed. It must be fixed with fittings along the external and internal perimeter.

The composition of the mixture is the same as for pouring the foundation. In this case, be sure to lay the knitted mesh as a reinforcing element. Cement is better to take M500 brands, since the weight of the filled tank will be large.

After the base has hardened, and this will happen no earlier than after 3 weeks, proceed to the installation of drives.

Using a crane in a dug hole set concrete rings. When the first link is laid, the joint with the base must be coated with cement mortar or tile adhesive. So you achieve tightness.

Installation of concrete rings
When installing a septic tank from concrete rings, it is necessary to apply the solution with excess so that it is extruded when laying the subsequent ring

Do the same with subsequent rings. Before installing the second and third, first apply a layer of mortar to the joints. After installing all the links, process the joints inside the tank again. When the tank is installed, a brick wall is made inside.

Mounted for cleaning inspection hatches. The horizontal partition is made with a concrete slab with holes for plastic covers.

Last step is waterproofing treatment all internal surfaces of two containers.

It should be borne in mind that the outlet from the first container should be 10 cm lower than the first - the entrance from the house.

The angle of inclination is determined by the same parameters as for home wiring: with a pipe diameter of 110 mm, a height difference of 1 m is 20 mm.

Draining septic tank
Installation diagram of a draining septic tank with two sealed tanks. The presence of a second tank allows you to filter water from sludge and other contaminants

To ensure that the pipe inclination complies with the norms, the inlet of the second sump drops by 10 cm relative to the first.

Insulation is attached to the upper part of the tanks, as well as to the inside of the cleaning hatches. Cleaning or inspection hatches are installed directly above the overflow pipes so that they can be cleaned.

For installation of a drainage well no concrete foundation is required. Here, the soil under the rings should let water through and retain impurities.

Therefore, a sand-gravel pillow is poured at the bottom of the pit.The thicker the crushed stone layer, the longer the well will perform its functions. After 5 years, it will be necessary to replace the upper layer of crushed stone with a new one, because the old one will silt up.

Keep track of the level. When installing the first ring on crushed stone, one edge can skew. If this happens, simply raise the link with a crane and level the gravel.

The joints of the rings must be treated with a solution to achieve tightness. The waterproofing and inspection hatch is similar to a sump.

Drainage well
So the drainage well is arranged. The thicker the bulk filter pad from crushed stone, the less often you will have to change it

Organization of ventilation of a septic tank

Installation of ventilation pipes for septic tanks is justified only if aerobic bacteria are used. They intensely absorb air that is fed through the hood.

Another variety of biological bacteria are anaerobes. The process of their life proceeds without oxygen.

It is important not to confuse these two concepts, as some anaerobes die if there is air in the environment.

In sumps are added aerobes and anaerobes. Bacteria completely process organics into water. In practice, this effect can only be achieved by installing integrated filtration systems, but still they must be used. Therefore, install the ventilation pipe in both sumps.

PVC sewer pipe for external use is discharged from each tank through the lid. At the end, a deflector is installed.

Stage 4 - laying of the central pipe

The sewer pipe, which removes sewage from the house, is diverted from the basement to a distance of 5 m. The pipeline for external use is painted in orange. Such a product differs from “home” pipes with thicker walls. Permissible laying depth - 3 m.

Soil freezing depth
The depth of the trench is determined by the table of indicators of freezing, plus 10%. The average value in Russia is 1.8 m

A layer of sand of 8-10 cm is poured at the bottom of the dug hole, as well as on top of the laid pipe. To ensure the best discharge of organic sewage from the house into the septic tank, the pipe should go in one line. Turns of the central runoff should never be allowed.

Alternatives to a septic tank

A modern device that allows you to purify waste water by 90% or more is a deep cleaning station.

Biological filtration devices are equipped with three degrees of purification $

  • biological treatment by bacteria;
  • mechanical mesh filtration;
  • final cleaning with chemical compounds.

It is not possible to independently install such a sewage system. Stations are produced in a single capacity, divided internally into several compartments. The device is volatile.

The compressor unit pumps air into the aerobic compartment for enhanced bacterial activity. Percentage of water treatment, depending on septic tank modelsreaches over 90%.

Biological treatment station
When the power is turned off, the bacteria will continue to live up to two days. After this period, the installation loses its effectiveness. It will take several days to grow a new crop

Deep purification of organics allows the use of waste water for watering plants. For this, a storage tank with a pump is installed.

It is advisable to use deep cleaning stations when groundwater is too close to the surface of the earth. Also, if the area is clayey soil, natural drainage will be difficult.

In addition to the biological septic tank, a sealed reservoir can be a way out of the situation. It will often have to be pumped out, but you will not have other problems.

Conclusions and useful video on the topic

The subtleties of arranging sewage are outlined by the author of the video, which is busy laying sewer pipes:

The device of a septic tank made of concrete rings will be discussed in the following video:

The sewage system in a private house is an important stage of construction.Even at the design stage, the owner should think about the future design of the septic tanks, their location, as well as the filtration system.

The comfort of all those living in the house will depend on the proper arrangement of the sewer system, therefore, if there is any doubt in their abilities, it is better to entrust its arrangement to specialists.

Do you have personal experience in designing and arranging sewers in a country house? Want to share your knowledge or ask questions about the topic? Please leave comments and participate in discussions - the feedback form is located below.

Was the article helpful?
Thanks for your feedback!
No (11)
Thanks for your feedback!
Yes (64)
Visitors Comments
  1. Nikolay

    For some reason, we have a lot of village sewerage options in the area (like cesspools, etc.), all houses are private. Yes, it’s cheap and does not require special knowledge, but it’s still much more reliable to build a normal sewage system with a biological treatment plant, and not to call sewage pumps every time. Of course, in which case you can dig out another “waste place”, but this is not always convenient.

  2. Elena

    Cognitive and interesting information. I didn’t even know that after deep biological treatment in the septic tank with water used and free from organic matter, you can water the plants. And all that’s needed for this is a pump with a waste water tank. Moreover, it can be cleaned as much as 90%. Although probably cultivated plants, herbs, cucumbers, etc. she can not be watered after all.