How to make a drainage well with your own hands and bring pipes to it
Basements and basement floors of private houses located in places of high groundwater, are often flooded, which in the end can lead to the destruction of the foundation. This will be prevented by a complete drainage system, equipped around the house.
We will tell you how to arrange drainage and install a drainage well with your own hands. In the article submitted for consideration, schemes of the device for collecting and removing ground water for its removal from the foundation are discussed in detail. The well construction options are listed and installation methods are described.
For a visual perception of difficult information, it is accompanied by useful schemes, collections of photos and video guides.
The content of the article:
- Purpose and arrangement of the drainage system
- The main types of drainage wells
- Material for manufacturing drainage wells
- Basic principles for the arrangement of drainage on the site
- Production and installation of plastic wells
- Concrete ring well construction
- Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Purpose and arrangement of the drainage system
Drainage must be carried out if the house is located in a lowland, or the groundwater level is higher than the basement or basement of the building, and there is a risk of flooding. Especially important to do site drainagelocated on clay soils that are prone to heaving during freezing of the lower layers in the cold period.
The drainage system simultaneously performs several important functions:
- reduces the pressure of groundwater on the walls and floor of the house;
- prevents flooding of basements;
- drains the territory adjacent to the structure.
It is advisable to arrange the drainage even at the stage of digging a foundation pit under the house so as not to disturb the landscape of the site when outbuildings have already been erected and equipped.
For arrangement drainage system around the perimeter of the house a trench is being developed. It should be at a distance of one and a half to three meters from the foundation pit or building (if the house is already built).
Then a closed pipeline is laid in it, and one or more drainage wells are installed in the necessary places. The number of wells and canals for pipes depends on the area of the site, the depth of groundwater, the type of soil.
Some confuse the drainage system with the storm, but meanwhile the difference between them is quite significant. Storm sewage is designed to drain rainwater and, as a rule, is located on the surface. The depth of the drainage pipes should be below the base of the foundation.
You can read about how to develop a draft drainage system for collecting and discharging groundwater, draining and landscaping a site in another popular article our site.
The main types of drainage wells
There are several types of wells, which differ from each other in their purpose, material of manufacture and size. The device of drainage wells of different types is almost the same.
They represent a tank with a closed bottom, into the shaft of which pipes are supplied drainage. The well is completely immersed in the ground, and its top is closed by a hatch.
The main difference between the wells is in their purpose. Each view is designed to perform a specific function and is located in a specific place in the drainage system.
Characteristics of manholes
Inspection or otherwise revision drainage wells are designed for:
- conducting routine inspections of the sewer system;
- monitoring the performance of the pipeline;
- periodic pipe cleaning and repair work.
Revision wells are installed in places where there is the greatest likelihood of contamination or siltation of pipes. Their sizes are selected taking into account the features of the sewer system. In small pipelines, as a rule, they are installed manholes diameter from 340 to 460 mm.
Large gutters are equipped with drainage structures having an inner diameter of up to one and a half meters. Some tanks are equipped with steps for convenient descent. An adult can easily fit in such a well for cleaning or repairing the pipeline. The system is cleaned by flushing the pipes with a stream of water under pressure.
A variety of inspection wells are rotary structures, which are located in the places of angular pipe joints. They do not need to be installed on each turn, they are usually mounted through an angle.
When mounting swivel wells, the design must be taken into account drainage system and install them so that all angular and cross sections of the pipeline can be brought to them.
Purpose of storage structures
A collector or otherwise water intake well serves to collect and accumulate water and its subsequent pumping into a reservoir or gutter. It represents a large tank with a diameter of up to one and a half meters, into which all pipes of the drainage system are diverted.
It is installed in places where it is impossible to put a filtering well or divert the water collected by the sewer into the drain. As a rule, they are taken out of the site.
The water intake tank is usually equipped with an electric pump, which is used to pump the accumulated liquid into a pond or to water the garden. Often, an automatic system is installed in the drives, which, when the tank is filled to a certain level, automatically pumps out water.
Features of absorption tanks
Filter wells are used in areas with slightly moist soil, located away from natural water bodies and not equipped with drainage systems. In this case, the amount of water to be pumped should not exceed 1 cubic meter. m per day.
The shape of the well can be round in diameter up to one and a half meters, or a rectangular or square area of not more than 6 m. Typically, concrete rings or plastic containers are used to make the well.
Device absorption well differs from other types of drainage tanks in that it does not have a sealed bottom. Instead, a filtering system is installed at the bottom of the well, which passes dirty wastewater through itself, cleans them of debris and takes them to the deep layers of the soil.
Material for manufacturing drainage wells
Wells for arranging a drainage system can be made of concrete rings yourself, or you can buy ready-made plastic containers of the right size and install them on the site. How to make a drainage well is up to you, but it’s worth considering that the first option is cheaper, but much more difficult to manufacture, the second is simpler, but somewhat more expensive.
Making a well from concrete rings is fraught with a number of problems. Due to the heavy weight of concrete structures, you may have to hire special equipment and invite assistants. They need to make holes for pipes, which is also quite difficult.
However, the complexity of installing a concrete well is justified by its great reliability, strength and durability. Concrete structures are virtually invulnerable to any adverse effects.
They can be mounted in any places and even on areas standing on soils subject to hydrothermal movement and swelling during freezing, where plastic structures can be deformed.
Modern plastic containers are also very reliable, and in addition, convenient and easy to install, lightweight and easy to install. On their case there are already holes of the required diameter for connecting pipes.
Many, in order to save money, resort to a combined installation option. For viewing and rotary wells, plastic tanks are purchased, and the filter and storage tanks are made of concrete rings. There is another option available - to make a well of plastic pipes yourself, how to do it is described below.
Basic principles for the arrangement of drainage on the site
For the device of the drainage system, the highest point of the site is selected, and a trench with a slope of 2 to 5 cm, two meters deep, where pipes are laid, digs from it. In the corners, rotary wells are installed, and in the places of nodal connections - observation ones.
The end point of the sewer system where everyone leads sloped pipes, is a filtering or storage well, from where forced or natural water drainage is carried out.
For the device of drainage, it is recommended to use special corrugated pipes with perforation made of PVC or polyethylene. They do not have technical restrictions on installation, they are very easy and simple to install. Depending on the size of the outlet holes in the drainage well, pipes with a diameter of 50 to 200 mm can be purchased.
For the full operation of the entire sewer system, it is necessary to carry out a number of preparatory measures. At the bottom of the trench sand is poured with a layer of 5 cm and carefully compacted. Then the bottom and walls of the ditch are covered with a geotissue, which will serve as a filter that prevents siltation of the system.
This is followed by a layer of crushed stone, approximately 10 cm. On which is laid perforated pipe, covered with another layer of rubble and wrapped in a geo-fabric with an overlap. On top of this “pie” a layer of earth is poured, which was selected when digging a trench.
Production and installation of plastic wells
The installation process depends on the type of well. For viewing, rotary and storage structures, it is necessary to make a concrete base. Absorption wells without a bottom require a filter system.
How to install a revision and manifold well
If you purchased a finished plastic container, you only need to install it on a previously prepared base. Installation of both types of wells is practically no different. The difference can only be in size, number of branch pipes, as well as in horizontal or vertical arrangement.
Inspection, as a rule, have a vertical design, storage can be performed in a horizontal or vertical version. In addition, collector wells are usually equipped with a drainage pump and pipes are diverted to the catchment.
Before constructing a well for collecting and discharging drainage water, dig a ditch, carry out preparatory work as described above, and lay pipes, but do not fall asleep yet.
Installation of a well consists of the following steps:
- deepen the area where you intend to install the well, it should be 40 cm deeper than the level of passage of pipes;
- sprinkle and compact a layer of sand and gravel;
- prepare a concrete mortar (3 parts of sand and 1 part of cement) and fill them with a bottom;
- after the base has hardened and is completely ready (it will take about 2 days), lay a layer of geotextile;
- install the container on a concrete sole, attach to the pipe bends;
At the end, mount the hatch from above, cover the structure on all sides with rubble and soil.
Installation of an absorbent structure made of plastic
To install a filter well, you will need plastic containers without a bottom. Their installation is carried out in the same manner as described above, except for pouring the concrete base. Instead, a filter system is made at the bottom of the well, which purifies the incoming water in a natural way.
A layer of gravel, crushed stone or other similar material with a thickness of 20-30 cm is poured to the bottom. Pipes are brought into the upper part of the well, the structure is poured from all sides with crushed stone or gravel, covered with a geo-cloth from above and closed with a hatch.
Production of containers from plastic pipes
If you haven't finished plastic containers, you can make it yourself. To do this, you will need a plastic pipe of a certain diameter (35-45 cm for inspection and rotary structures and 63-95 cm for collector and absorption). In addition, it is necessary to purchase a round bottom and a hatch made of plastic in accordance with the size of the pipe and rubber gaskets.
- Cut a plastic pipe of the required size corresponding to the depth of the well.
- Approximately 40–50 cm from the bottom, make holes for piping and equip them with rubber gaskets.
- Attach the bottom to the container and seal all the seams with bitumen mastic or other sealant.
Installing a home-made drainage tank is performed according to the above scheme.
Concrete ring well construction
For a well, it is necessary to purchase reinforced concrete rings that are made of moisture-resistant concrete. The sizes and diameter of the rings are selected based on the type and purpose of the well. But it must be borne in mind that their depth should be at least two meters.
Concrete rings are available in various sizes (from 10 cm to 1 m high and from 70 cm to 2 m in diameter), so picking up a product is easy. For a well, rings with a height of 50-60 and a diameter of 70-150 cm are usually chosen. Their weight, depending on the size, ranges from 230-900 kg.
Of course, such a weight is not impossible to lift one, so you have to invite one or two assistants. There are two ways to install the structure. If the diameter of the ring allows you to fit inside a person, then you can simply put it on the ground, and then proceed to excavation from the inside.
The ring will press its own weight on the ground and gradually subside as the soil is dug out from under it. Thus, you can install all the rings, laying them on top of each other and fastening together brackets made of metal.
The second option is to first dig a pit, the width of which should be approximately 40 cm greater than the diameter of the rings. If the soil is soft, you need to fill the bottom with gravel with a layer of 15-20 cm, and then lower the concrete rings. With this method, if a revision or storage well is made, it is advisable to install a lower ring with a blank bottom.
If there is no bottom, then you will need to do it yourself. To do this, the lower part of the well is poured with concrete mortar with reinforcement. When installing the absorption structure, the bottom of the tank is equipped with a filter system, as described above.
All joints between the rings are coated with a cement-sand mixture, and then, after drying, are sealed with bitumen-polymer waterproofing.
Further from the well according developed scheme a trench is excavated for drainage pipes, but do not rush to lay them, because first you will have to perform another rather laborious job - to make holes in the concrete to connect the pipes. This can be done with a punch and concrete or diamond crowns. They have different diameters, so choosing the right size is not difficult, but their cost is quite high.
If the farm did not find a crown for concrete, and you do not want to spend money on its purchase, you can resort to another cheaper way. In the place where it is supposed to make a retraction, attach the pipe and draw a circle with a pencil of the required diameter. Drill through holes with a puncher along the contour of the drawn line.
Direct the crowbar into the central hole and begin to break it slowly, as the hole expands, take a large hammer or sledgehammer and finish the process. Now you can bring the pipes and putting on them protective rubber seals, insert into the hole made. Put places also with bitumen. Set the overlap.
A concrete well is covered with crushed stone from all sides, to a height of about 50 cm, and then clay is poured to the very top and well compacted. Such a clay pillow will prevent water leakage and extend the life of the well.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Detailed instructions for arranging a drainage system at home can be seen in the following video:
How to make a drainage well from concrete rings, the following video tells you:
Installation of drainage wells is a difficult process, but mandatory for areas with a high level of groundwater occurrence. If you do not equip the territory with a full drainage system in a timely manner, then periodic flooding of the basement of the house will inevitably lead to the destruction of the base of the structure.
We are waiting for your stories about how you built drainage on the site and put drainage wells. You can write about your own experience, comment and discuss the article, ask questions in the block below.