How to install the Tver septic tank: an overview of installation technology
Owners of country houses and country houses are faced with the problem of wastewater treatment and disposal. There are many ways to solve the problem, but the installation of a septic tank can be considered the best, which can remove up to 80% of pollution from wastewater.
Among such units, the local Tver facilities, which provide multi-stage waste treatment, have proven themselves well.
But, you must agree, before deciding to purchase, you need to find out how the unit works, how the Tver septic tank is installed, and what are the features of its operation.
All these points are detailed in the article. The information provided will help determine the appropriate septic tank model, independently carry out installation and commissioning of the unit.
The content of the article:
- The principle of operation of the septic tank
- The range of treatment equipment
- Where to place the installation: rules and regulations
- How to determine soil water absorption
- Waste disposal methods
- Preparation for installation of a septic tank
- Installation technology of treatment equipment
- Conclusions and useful video on the topic
The principle of operation of the septic tank
Sewage treatment equipment under the brand name “Tver” It is an aeration type septic tank with a sufficiently high productivity.
It is used in any soil with different levels of groundwater.
All modifications to the device include six basic elements.
Let's analyze each element separately:
- Primary sedimentation tank. It takes drains with inclusion of solid fractions. Anaerobic bacteria ferment the incoming sewer mass. Heavy large inclusions settle to the bottom of the tank. Lighter particles rise into the upper part of the sump and, together with the liquid, overflow into the second compartment of the device.
- Bioreactor. The processes of conversion of a difficultly oxidizable fraction to an easily oxidizable one take place here. Under the influence of gravitational forces, heavy inclusions move from top to bottom in the bioreactor, gradually undergoing changes.
- Aerotank. In this zone, the easily oxidized fraction coming from the lower compartment of the bioreactor is mixed with biologically active sludge, in which aerobic bacteria. The procedure is performed by blowing silty sediments through the air through the entire aeration tank. To increase the efficiency of the aerator, expanded clay is added to the tank.
- Secondary sedimentation tank. Collects expanded clay balls and silty foam. Expanded clay is separated here, which is collected in the lower branch and sent back to the aeration tank. The clarified liquid accumulates in the upper part of the tank, from where it is discharged to the next zone.
- Aerotank bioreactor. Partially treated effluents with a minimum amount of solids come here. Here they decompose into gas and water. This happens under the influence of an aerator, through which air is pumped. Solids tend to sink to the bottom of the tank, air bubbles do not allow them to do this. They pick up the elements of the solid fraction, lift them up, from where the particles again fall down. The process is repeated until the complete decomposition of organic matter.
- Tertiary sedimentation tank. Almost completely purified liquid enters this compartment. It contains only particles of limestone mixed with in an aeration tank. In the sump they drop down, and clean water enters the drain pipe and leaves the septic tank.
To accelerate the decomposition process, crushed limestone is laid at the bottom of the compartment so that the aerator is under a layer of material. Sedimentary rock adsorbs the solid fraction of wastewater well and retains the phosphates contained in detergents.
The range of treatment equipment
The manufacturer produces eight septic tanks of various sizes. They can handle from 0.75 to 10 m3 /day. For example, the most productive modification Tver 10 Designed for the treatment of wastewater from a small cafe or hotel.
Lowest performance Tver 0.75. This septic tank is designed to serve residential buildings, in which no more than 3 people live.
In addition to performance, the equipment also has structural features. About four to five modifications of each model are produced, differing in case dimensions, number of compressors, etc.
The location of the inlet pipe, which can be located at a depth of 0.6 m or 0.3 m, also varies. Depending on this, the dimensions and shape of the inspection well change.
Design features of septic tanks are indicated by letters that are present in the name of the models. For example, modifications with the letter P made of polypropylene. The inlet pipe in these models is located 0.34 m above the ground.
Variations with a drainage pump compartment are marked Mon. Septic tanks with a fecal pump compartment are indicated NP, and marking NAP indicates the presence of two pump compartments at once.
Where to place the installation: rules and regulations
Septic tanks are among the potentially dangerous objects for the environment. Their installation requires permission from the SES. To get it, you need to draw up a project for the placement of equipment in which all applicable requirements and standards must be taken into account.
If everything complies with the regulations, permission will be obtained.The project takes into account not only the location of the installation, but also its volumes.
The last indicator should not be less than the three-day maximum volume of effluents. The place where the septic tank is installed should be removed as far as possible from the well or from the well, if they are on the site.
Despite the fact that the cleaning equipment is hermetically sealed, it is theoretically possible that an emergency situation may occur, as a result of which sewage can enter the aquifer.
To avoid such problems, the regulations regulate the distance from the treatment plant to the well or well for each type of soil. The minimum is 20 m.
On average, if there is loamy, sandy, or sandy soil on the site, this distance is from 50 to 80 m. There are certain standards that apply when laying water pipes. They must be placed at a distance of at least 10 m from the septic tank.
This completely eliminates the risk of water pollution in case of depressurization of the pipeline. Another caveat: when choosing a site for the installation of a septic tank, you need to remember that relative to the water source, the level of its location should be lower.
In addition, the rules governing the distance between the treatment plant and the place of residence of people should be taken into account. From the foundation of the house to the septic tank should be at least 5 m.
However, too much distance between objects is extremely undesirable, since a long sewer pipeline is more at risk of blockages. It is important to choose the optimal length of the structure. In the case of using a modification of the Tver septic tank with forced pumping of process water, you can place it closer to home.
In such cases, the ventilation riser is installed at the entrance to the external sewage branch and is attached to the wall of the house. The inlet sewer can be about 1 m.
The type of discharge and the length of the outlet pipe depends on the geological and hydrogeological situation in a particular area. In any case, the external sewer network must be equipped inspection wells.
It must be remembered that when choosing a location for a septic tank, the interests of not only the owner of the land, but also its neighbors should be taken into account. Therefore, the distance from the installation to the fence cannot be less than 2 m.
If a road with quite intensive traffic is nearby, the septic tank must not be installed closer than 5 m to it. The distance from the foundation of outbuildings of any purpose to the septic tank should not be less than 1 m.
Professionals advise to plan the installation of treatment equipment in the area with soft soil, which will greatly facilitate excavation. In addition, care must be taken to ensure easy access to the device for regular maintenance.
All of the above requirements must be taken into account when choosing a place for a septic tank.
How to determine soil water absorption
Before installing a new septic tank, it is advisable to find out how well the soil in the area absorbs water. The method of discharging treated effluents largely depends on this.
Experts recommend a water absorption test, which is quite simple to perform on your own. He will help determine ground water level, which is very important when arranging such facilities.
To conduct the test, we sequentially perform the following measures. First we drill a pit or dig a hole below the level of freezing. On average, it is about 1.5 m. When we take out the dump from the excavation, we try to determine the type: suspension, sand, etc.
During digging, water may appear in the pit. This means that the first layer saturated with water was opened from the day surface.
Usually at such a depth, the top is opened, which appears during a period of heavy rainfall and snowmelt. If it appeared at a depth above 1 m, then from the capacity it will be necessary to install 15-20 cm above the recommended level.
The bottom of the pit will need to be poured with a concrete screed and, without waiting for the solution to solidify, install mounting loops in the screed. They are needed to anchor the tank - to secure it to the concrete slab with a cable, which will prevent floating up during floods.
If clay soil appears at the bottom, the treated waste mass will need to be diverted into the gutter. Loam and sandy loam does not allow water to pass through, so a fairly long pipeline will have to be arranged for discharge, and a pump will have to be purchased to stimulate the movement of liquid through it.
If the bottom and walls of your exploration mine are composed of sand with thin layers of sandy loam and loam, you need to determine the filtration quality of the soil. To do this, pour water into a pit or well, fixing the volume of liquid and the time it took to absorb it.
It is possible that the liquid is not completely absorbed, but is stationary at some level. So, below it will not go away or will be absorbed too slowly. We carry out the pouring operation 5 or 6 times to obtain more objective data on water absorption. Each time we determine the volume of liquid filled and the rate of absorption.
It may turn out that there will be water at the bottom of the pit. If she does not leave in a few hours, we can assume that this will be the case all the time. So, under a layer of sand that you exposed, a clay layer lies that will not let the liquid component of the drains pass.
Filtration properties must be considered when deciding on the method of discharging treated effluents. For example, there is no point in equipping a filtering well on clayey rocks, because the liquid will not leave it.
You can not build it if the distance between the conditional bottom of the soil filter and the roof of the underlying aquifer is less than a meter.
Filtration fields, which are a system of pipes with holes through which purified water seeps into the surrounding soil, are not suitable for a device on a clay base. They are laid in sandy soils that well absorb the liquid discharged from the system.
By analogy with the device of the absorption well between the bottom of the perforated pipes and the water-saturated layer should be at least a meter.
Waste disposal methods
Before installing the Tver septic tank, it is important to determine the method of removing purified water. It is assumed that there may be several options. You just need to choose the right method for your site.
In this case, many factors are taken into account: features of a particular septic tank model, soil type, equipment installation depth, presence / absence of a drainage ditch, and more.
Tver wastewater treatment plants provide a high degree of wastewater treatment; therefore, it is allowed to organize the discharge of liquid into the soil, a roadside ditch, or use it for technical needs, for example, for irrigation.
Graduation is the most budget option. In this case, the most inexpensive device from the model range of septic tanks of appropriate capacity can be used without any additions in the form of a pump.
The most important condition for the successful operation of the system in the case of gravity flow is that the discharge point of treated effluents should be located below the level of the outlet pipe of the septic tank. In this case, all recommended slopes of the pipeline on the way to the discharge site must be observed.
It is possible to connect to the septic tank not one, but several buildings. But in this case, all the above conditions must be met.
Pumped liquid discharge using a pump
If the discharge point of clarified effluents is higher than the level of the outlet pipe of the septic tank, you can use the option of connecting the pump. It is desirable that the acquired modification of the Tver septic tank has a pump compartment.
With the pump it will be much easier to arrange the removal of the cleaned mass over long distances for disposal outside the village.
If you have already bought a structure designed for gravity water outlet, you will have to purchase additional equipment.
This can be an additional storage module or a caisson, from where purified water will be pumped. The costs of their purchase, maintenance and installation will significantly increase the cost of the entire project.
It must be remembered that vertically oriented septic tanks do not have a modification with a pump compartment. When using the pump method of water discharge, the range of its supply is limited only by the capacity of the pump.
Drain technical fluid into the filter well
It is assumed that water will be supplied by gravity or pump to a special absorption well. This design is an independent drainage structure, in which additional liquid purification also takes place.
The arrangement of such a well is possible only in sandy soils, peat and plastic sandy loam with a low content of clay particles.
In loams and sandy loam, arranging such a system is pointless, since water will not leave it. The depth of the structure should be such that between the top of the crushed stone filter and the inlet pipe there is a minimum meter necessary for normal accumulation and filtration of effluents.
The removal of purified water to the filtration field
In this case, the cleaned liquid will be discharged to drainage filtration field. The construction will help to evenly distribute process water and make it additionally cleaned.
The size of the filtration field depends on the performance of the septic tank and should be determined by specialists. Errors in the calculations will inevitably lead to disturbances in the operation of the septic tank.
This method of discharging treated water is categorically not suitable for areas with characteristic seasonal floods. In such situations, drains will be flooded in spring / winter and the surrounding soil will not be able to receive drains.
The liquid will begin to stagnate, due to which the discharge will stop, as a result, the septic tank will not work. In addition, stagnant water will become a source of unpleasant odor and contamination of soil and water on the site.
Preparation for installation of a septic tank
Having decided on the method of discharging treated effluents, you need to equip a site for their reception: a drainage ditch, a filtration well or a field. Another important point: the preparation of the site for the entry of sewage into the septic tank.
If the sewer outlet from the building is deep enough, you may need to equip pumping station. Contaminated liquid will flow into it by gravity.
Further fecal pump it will be pumped into a septic tank for cleaning. Pumping equipment is not needed if the sewer outlet is not too deep.
In most cases, special equipment for the installation of the Tver septic tank is not needed. Its weight is light. The largest building with a complete "rig" in the form of expanded clay, limestone, etc. It weighs about 390 kg, which allows you to lower it into the pit by several people.
Of course, it is more comfortable to work with special equipment, but if necessary, you can cope without it. The installation depth of the pit is small. For standard models it is only 1.65 m, which greatly facilitates the work.
That is why the Tver brand is readily chosen for installation in areas with high GW. You can dig a pit using special equipment or yourself.
Installation technology of treatment equipment
Work begins with the preparation of a foundation pit for a septic tank. Its dimensions should be 0.3-0.4 m higher than the dimensions of the installation. The bottom of the pit is leveled and compacted. A pillow of compacted sand or crushed stone with a height of about 15 cm is laid on it.
Now we carry out an eyeliner to a septic tank.We lay pipes with a diameter of 100 mm with a slope of at least 0.02 or 2 cm per linear meter. It is advisable to lay the highway without turns.
If they do exist, they must be performed inside the inspection well. The diameter of the structure should be 70 cm, the radius of the tray - 30 cm.
If the pipeline route crosses heaving soils, they will need to be removed to a depth of 40 cm from the bottom edge of the pipe and replaced with compacted sand. Places for connecting sewer pipes to the pipes are sealed.
Home sewage must be equipped with one or two sewer risers. Without it, the correct operation of the septic tank is impossible.
Coming out through the roof sewer riser In no case should it be connected to the internal ventilation system. It is connected to the sewer wiring of the building.
Inside the trench, next to the supply pipe, an air duct from the compressor is laid. It should be laid with a slight slope towards the septic tank. The power cable is also laid here. Similarly, we equip the discharge line.
Its bias depends on the selected method of purified water. For example, if it leaves by gravity, the pipe slope is selected not less than 0.01, i.e. 1 cm per linear meter.
If forced pumping is selected, the slope should be “reverse”. That is, when the pump stops, water should return to the septic tank. After the work on the arrangement of pipelines is completed, you can proceed to install the device.
The container is lowered into the pit and neatly installed on the base. Use the level to check the horizontal installation. If violations are found, they should be corrected by adding sand under the edge of the hull.
Next is the anchoring of the tank. For this, there are special loading ledges at the ends on the case. Then all the failed communications are connected to the device, including electricity.
Now you need to fill the housing to the level of weirs with clean water. Simultaneously with the filling, an external filling of the body with clean sand without clay inclusions should be carried out. Backfill is carried out on all sides to a height of about 30 cm.
It is important to control the correctness of the installation using the level. The body should be strictly horizontal. Next, you can proceed to warming the septic tank.
The upper part of the device is covered with any insulation. Most often, mineral wool is used for these purposes. It is fixed on the body, after which the septic tank is filled with soil.
For a test run, wastewater is supplied to the septic tank while the compressor is turned on. An important condition for performing the operation is the positive air temperature in the street.
The temperature of the effluents used for the first start-up should not be lower than 12ºС, otherwise the device will not “work”. Then you need to start the aeration system and, guided by the instructions, adjust the supply of the desired amount of air to the appropriate equipment compartments.
If everything was done correctly, then after 3 or 4 weeks the liquid at the outlet of the septic tank will reach the specified degree of purification.
To verify this, it will be necessary to take samples several times and analyze them. Externally, the liquid should be transparent, odorless, colorless and any visible inclusions. If the degree of purification is insufficient, the septic tank must be adjusted.
It is unlikely to be able to do it on their own, it is best to invite specialists from the service department of the treatment equipment manufacturer.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
How the septic tank Tver is arranged and works:
Self-installation of a local wastewater treatment plant Tver:
Features of the installation of a septic tank Tver in the winter:
Septic tanks "Tver" - a practical solution to the problem of disposal of sewage. This rather sophisticated equipment with a high degree of purification will be able to work effectively only if it is properly installed and commissioned. If you have doubts about your own strengths, it is better to seek help from specialists.
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