How to choose a septic tank for giving: an overview and tips for choosing the best option

Nikolay Fedorenko
Checked by a specialist: Nikolay Fedorenko
Author: Antonina Turyeva
Last update: June 2019

Living at the cottage allows not only to relax from the bustle of the city, but also to enjoy nature, clean air, and find peace. But so that nothing would prevent a good rest, you have to take care of the arrangement of the benefits of civilization - water supply, electricity and sewage, is not it?

Are you trying to figure out how to choose a septic tank for giving, so as not to overpay and miscalculate? We will help you in this matter - in our article the types of septic tanks, their structural and functional differences are considered. Indeed, to select the best utilizer, it is advisable to get acquainted with existing options.

Also, the material of the article is supplemented by recommendations for selection, colorful photos and useful videos on the manufacture and operation of different types of septic tanks.

Existing types and features of septic tanks

Manufacturers of sewer equipment offer a wide variety of options designed to facilitate suburban life.

Among the equipment options there are both simple and inexpensive models, and rather sophisticated biological sewage treatment plants.

It is rather difficult to choose one thing, especially if the owner of the cottage faced this question for the first time.

Types of utilizers and their features

In order to choose your ideal option among all the offers abounding in the market, you have to get to know more about the main features of existing equipment.

All septic tanks can be divided into 2 main types, differing in principle of action:

  • cumulative;
  • cleansing.

Consider each of these types of septic tanks in more detail.

Option # 1 - storage septic tanks

The first - storage septic tanks - are the simplest. They are a container designed to collect waste from the life of a person living in a country house. It can be made of any material.

The size of such a septic tank can be selected depending on the needs. Optimally when the storage capacity holds about 10 m3 drains.

Septic for giving
A storage septic tank filled with sewage can be mounted underground or left on the surface

In other words, such a septic tank resembles a cesspool in a modern design. From time to time, as it is filled, it is necessary to carry out cleaning, calling the sewer machine.

Such an operation cannot be carried out independently. This is the most basic drawback, because the cost of the services of trash cans is not small.

Therefore, all septic tanks of the accumulative type are ideal for small families or single summer residents who rarely visit the house.

The daily volume of effluents from all residents should be minimal in order to reduce the frequency of waste pumping from the storage tank.

Simple collection tanks
Tanks for collecting drains in small volumes are especially popular among seasonal summer residents. They usually take plastic models.

Option # 2 - cleaning septic tanks

Cleaning septic tanks are more complex equipment that allows not only collecting, but also cleaning drains.

The cost will directly depend on:

  • from the level of final cleaning;
  • working principle;
  • capacity volume;
  • additional functions.

The level of cleaning can vary between 50-98%. Moreover, if at the outlet it is necessary to obtain industrial water with a degree of purification of up to 75% from a dirty liquid entering a septic tank through a sewer pipe, then a septic tank will be sufficient.

If the liquid component of the effluent needs to be decontaminated and cleaned at 95-98% for free discharge into the soil or gutter, the installation of a biological treatment station will be required.

Bioremediation plants for home use
Bioremediation plants for home use are lightweight, compact, easy to install and maintain.

Such a capacity has from three or more chambers, into which drains come in turn.In each compartment, mechanical or biological processes take place that make it possible to obtain a liquid with the smell of pure river water.

Moreover, it is completely safe for dumping on relief or watering trees, plants, shrubs.

Material for the manufacture of containers

All septic tanks are divided by the type of material used for their manufacture.

It could be:

  • brick;
  • concrete;
  • plastic;
  • metal.

Let us consider in more detail the features of each of these materials.

Using bricks to build a septic tank

Ofbrick build a wellcollecting sewage waste. It is laid out in a special way so that the water enters for additional purification, and all impurities remain inside the structure.

This is the most inexpensive septic tank option that you can equip yourself.

Brick drains
Brick structures will require special care, periodic cleaning with the call of a cesspool machine. The frequency of such work depends on the total volume of effluents

Moreover, when arranging it, it is important to calculate and do everything correctly in order to avoid environmental pollution by untreated liquid. Indeed, the entry of sewage waste into groundwater can infect drinking water from nearby wells.

Features of reinforced concrete structures

Many owners with skillful hands consider the best septic tank for giving reinforced concrete structure. But such a project will cost a lot and will not save from the arrangement of the zone for additional liquid purification.

Moreover, a concrete septic tank can be made by pouring everything in place or buying factory blanks.

Construction of a concrete septic tank
When constructing a concrete septic tank, you can’t do without special equipment. This is a tangible expense item. Such equipment is not profitable to put on rarely visited dachas

The ideal option is to buy finished reinforced concrete rings with mounting chamfer at the edge for the construction of a sealed concrete structure.


But transportation and installation will require the involvement of special equipment. These are significant costs, and the cost of high-quality concrete can not be called small.

Metal Storage

Metal storage and utilizers are much cheaper. But their main disadvantage is susceptibility to corrosion.

Even the best anti-corrosion coating does not save - after several years, aggressive effluents violate the tightness of the tank.

This can cause fecal waste to enter groundwater, contaminate it and soil, and create an unpleasant odor in nearby areas.

Septic tanks made of metal
On sale you can find septic tanks made of metal. Their surface is treated with a corrosion-resistant coating.

The use of polymer containers

And here polymer septic tanks made of polypropylene, fiberglass and low pressure polyethylene.

Fiberglass models are considered the most expensive and reliable. The material contains fiberglass and special resins, giving it improved characteristics.

Septic tanks for giving different forms
All types of polymers make it possible to produce high-quality containers that can withstand temperature changes and the aggressive environment of sewage

They are able to last 50 years or more.

The shape of the polymer septic tanks can be round, rectangular. It can be cylindrical or cubic containers.

Good to choose a seamless option
It’s good to choose a seamless option in order to completely eliminate the divergence of the seams and not rely on the integrity of the manufacturer

The advantages of a purchased septic tank over a homemade

The question of the independent manufacture of a septic tank arises before many summer residents. After all, buying a factory analogue can result in a pretty decent amount.

Hand-made construction of a sewer installation will require a lot of time and effort. But the total cost will be much lower.

Of course, polymer septic tanks with biological treatment at home cannot be made. But concrete or brick models will be quite within reach.

The feasibility of the construction depends on the skills of the owner, the number of residents, the frequency of visiting the cottage and the size of the site.

Reinforced concrete ring septic tank
Often, owners themselves build septic tanks from reinforced concrete rings. It is important to ensure tight joints

If the purpose of staying in the country is periodic care of the beds, then there is no point in starting a full-fledged construction of a sewer system. Here, you can get by with the purchase of an inexpensive drive with a call of vacuum trucks once every two years.

For more serious needs, if you have a full bathroom with a bathtub, sink, shower and toilet, a large treatment plant will be required. In order not to waste your time on its construction, it will be easier to order ready-made with installation service.

Factory-made Septic
A factory-made septic tank is more reliable than a self-made septic tank. And the warranty from the manufacturer will cover the repair if any defect is found

This option, if you have the financial ability, will be most acceptable - everything is fast, high quality.

You do not need to delve into all the wisdom of choosing a location, to understand the methods of supplying and discharging effluents, to study other nuances of arranging a local sewage system. All this can be safely entrusted to the masters.

Overview of popular septic tanks

The market offers a variety of models of treatment facilities. Here you can choose the most successful option that can meet the needs of a specific summer resident. All septic tanks can be conditionally divided into:

  • non-volatile;
  • volatile.

First - non-volatile - it is advisable to apply in an unstable supply of electricity or if you want to do without these costs.

These include storage tanks and septic tanks, which treat sewage by separating soluble and insoluble components.

Volatile options mainly consume a small amount of electricity. Many owners report a very small increase in their monthly electricity bills.

In the work of this group of septic tanks, aerators and pumping devices are involved, which ensures the highest possible degree of purification.

Storage tank must be installed correctly.
Even the simplest equipment requires proper installation and connection to the sewage system.

If we turn to specific models, we can highlight the most popular among users. Moreover, according to reviews of both seasonal summer residents and permanent residents, all septic tanks have proven themselves in the best way. The ratio of the quality of work and the money paid for them is quite acceptable.

According to the number of satisfied consumers and positive reviews, we can distinguish the following septic tanks:

The most popular models buyers recognize Tank, Astra, Topas. Moreover, the first model is non-volatile. There is also a favorable price and ease of installation.

All 3 options are compact, light weight, easy to install, high level of wastewater treatment to the state of process water and the possibility of self-service.

Septic tank with biological wastewater treatment
The range of septic tanks with biological wastewater treatment, such as Unilos Astra, is designed for a different number of users, both families of 2-3 people, and for an entire street of 35-40 residents

Tank and Triton are non-volatile. The remaining models from the above - are dependent on electricity.

As for the volume of the tank and the number of chambers for waste treatment, each manufacturer has several variations that can meet the needs of customers.

So, for example, Unilos can offer a solution for a cottage village of 150 people - this is the Astra 150 model.

Selection criteria for a suitable septic tank

To decide which septic tank is better to choose for your summer residence, you have to carefully analyze the source data.From the answers to simple questions it will depend on what characteristics the future sewage equipment should have.

To make a decision about a septic tank, you need the following information:

  • the frequency of visiting the cottage;
  • financial opportunities;
  • groundwater table (groundwater level);
  • type of underlying soil;
  • land area;
  • number of residents.

The frequency of the visit depends on which kind of utilizer is required. After all, if it is planned to spend summer vacations at the cottage, then such biological treatment plants as Astra, Topas and Topol will not work.

Aerobic bacteria will not survive long-term starvation. They need sewage waste and oxygen for quality work.

But these options will be ideal in opposite conditions. When a family of 3-5 people buys a summer house, considering in the future the possibility of year-round living, then it is worth taking seriously the arrangement of the sewage system.

If funds allow, then bioremediation stations will maximize the satisfaction of waste disposal requests.

In the presence of modest financial opportunities and a rare visit to the country, you can do with the storage capacity of plastic up to 10 m2. This option is convenient and easy to use - you can remove collected drains once a year.

A small septic tank can be delivered to the site yourself
You don’t have to spend money on delivery and installation - you can deliver a septic tank to your site on your car and install it on the surface or deepen into the ground

Groundwater level and soil type directly affect the choice of treatment plant. With clay deposits and high GW, the option with a septic tank and filtration fields should be discarded immediately.

Purification of wastewater by 50-60% and directing them to the filtration fields is fraught with environmental pollution in conditions of increased GW.

Clay soils, sandy loam, loam, clay, are characterized by low filtration rates. They are classified as water-resistant and cannot absorb the liquid component of effluents.

Therefore, they are not suitable for the installation of soil post-treatment systems: filtration fields and absorbing wells.

On a clay base, drives are installed or sewers are arranged with the discharge of the purified liquid component of the sewer masses into the gutters. Disposal in soil under such conditions is prohibited.

The second compelling reason for diverting through the pipeline into the ditch is the too small distance between the ground water mirror and the conditional bottom of the filtration field or the absorption well. Between them should be at least 1 m.

With a small area of ​​the site to arrange the filtering field is not possible. For these purposes, you will need to allocate at least 30 m2 and maintain the standard distance for removal from the house and other residential buildings.

Area under filtration fields
For the organization of filtration fields requires free space on the site. Not all summer residents can afford it

The number of people permanently living in a summer cottage directly affects the choice of the required volume of a septic tank. Moreover, it is important to correctly calculate the amount of sewage waste for 3 days.

In order for a treatment plant to be able to perform its functions qualitatively during salvo discharge, its optimal load is required. This is especially true for biological treatment plants.

After weighing all the factors that influence the choice, you can safely proceed to purchase the perfect model for your summer cottage.

Useful tips and nuances when buying

Having figured out how to choose the right septic tank, you should listen to the useful tips coming from professionals. Firstly, it is best to choose equipment that requires minimal maintenance.

Biological treatment septic stations
Many septic biological treatment plants require service by their owners.

The simpler the system is built and the less control and intervention is needed, the easier will be the life of its owners. An ideal option, when the owner of the cottage itself can perform all the necessary manipulations with the treatment plant.

Secondly, you should try to choose energy independence. Many owners of permanent residences, stopping at dependent models, immediately take care of generators and spare batteries.

Indeed, such forethought will be needed not only for the functioning of the sewage system, but also for other consumers of electricity - microwaves, televisions, computers and other equipment.

Groundwater pollution by wastewater
Unfortunately, some summer residents do not think about the pollution of groundwater by arranging an absorption well instead of a local sewer on a summer cottage

The filtration well (it is also absorbing or absorbing) is designed for soil post-treatment of sewage treated in a septic tank.

As an independent structure, it can be used to receive and filter gray sewer masses - water contaminated during hygiene procedures, during cleaning, kitchen work coming from dishwashers and washing machines.

Thirdly, you should try to organize the discharge of treated effluents into the ground, and not onto the terrain. Otherwise, the effluent must be 98% clean so as not to create an environmental disaster in the area.

After all, untreated pollution is not only able to infect groundwater - they will create an unbearable stench in the entire district.

Scheme of organizing filter fields
For the organization of filtering fields, there are certain rules and recommendations that should be guided by.

Fourth, the life of the selected septic tank should be equal to the life of the house itself. It is not less than 50-80 years. Accordingly, it is better to immediately discard the metal container as a drive.

You can focus on other materials - they can last 50 years or more without corrosion.

Corrosion of a metal septic tank
No matter how high-quality the anti-corrosion coating is, it will not last 50 years. This is fraught with big problems for the owner of a septic tank made of metal

Fifthly, one should take seriously the choice of the installation site of the future purification system. It will not be amiss to focus on the norms and sanitary requirements for sewage equipment.

Also, each septic tank has its own recommendations set out in the corresponding instruction. It is on them that one should rely during installation.

Sixth, you need to read reviews about your favorite septic tank on independent resources, for example, on construction forums. Studying all the information about him, one should rely on serious regulatory literature, and not on advertising.

Seventh, stopping at the option of buying a station, it is more expedient to immediately order the installation. Indeed, its trouble-free functioning depends on proper installation.

It is worth remembering that the purchased septic equipment can qualitatively perform its functions at least 50. It is better not to save on its installation in order to avoid the negative consequences of errors.

Correctly installed septic tank
A correctly installed septic tank will not only not interfere in everyday life, but also save its owner from sudden breakdowns and failure of the sewer system

Conclusions and useful video on the topic

Tips for choosing a septic tank suitable for specific conditions:

Tips in a video format about the pros and cons of various septic tanks:

Video for home masters who prefer to build a septic tank on their own:

Having studied all the nuances of choosing a septic tank, you can choose the most successful option for your summer cottage. A well-maintained plot with excellent functioning sewage system will allow the whole family to be in the fresh air in comfortable conditions. Moreover, local amenities that are not dependent on local authorities will please the next 50-80 years with their uninterrupted work.

Have you made a homemade septic tank for a summer residence? Or did you choose a finished design among the models on the market? Please tell us about your experience with using a septic tank and the nuances of service in the comments under our article.

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Visitors Comments
  1. Vadim

    We bought a summer house a year ago, a septic tank was already here. Located behind the fence, not far from the site, where there is no man's land. The previous owners of the dacha said that they had lived on it for five years and they only had to call the service of sanitation only once to pump out the waste. That is, it fills slowly. And I see that the guy didn’t lie, because despite the fact that there are three of us and we live here for several months in a row, the sewer “well” was almost a quarter full.

  2. Marat

    In the country, the parents had constant problems with sewage, the water gurgled, everything flowed badly, there was stagnation of water. In general, do not wash the dishes, do nothing. I decided to give them a septic tank Astra for 3 persons. Workers dug a hole under the station, leveled and rammed the bottom. After immersing the station in the pit, they sprinkled sand on all sides, before filling the tank with water so that there was no pressure on the hull.

    The station has several chambers that process waste. All solid waste in the form of sludge settles in the sump. After repeated treatment with clarified water, the garden is watered; it is odorless. Special equipment for maintenance has not yet been called. The only septic tank is volatile, it consumes somewhere 1.5 kW / day, in monetary terms it is 250 rubles.

  3. Novel

    The market of treatment facilities is supersaturated with various septic tanks for any request and wallet. Three years ago, I picked up a simple and reliable option, working without smell, breakdowns and blockages.

    I watched a lot on the network, talked with representatives of construction companies. I chose one, I liked competent customer service and a large selection of products. They suggested some interesting options, the engineer explained to me some points that interested me, gave some practical advice.

    I liked the non-volatile sewer station with a high degree of sewage treatment up to 98%. It is necessary to pump out the sludge once every two years, and the price is acceptable, not too expensive even with the installation. We did everything quickly, without unnecessary delays.Warranty, a full package of documents. During the use of no complaints. A good choice.

    • Leonid

      Currently, I’m just looking for a suitable septic tank for a summer cottage for two people. The head goes around from the offers of companies ... but which of the septic tanks is really reliable? Someone can give an assessment of the Eurotank 3 septic tank. Thanks in advance.

      • Expert
        Nikolay Fedorenko

        Good afternoon, Leonid. You are advised to take a septic tank model with less electronics. I would single out two models - Tver and sled.

        For several reasons:

        1. Inside the septic tank, there is no electronics provided that the treated effluents are drained by gravity. The compressor is installed inside the house. It will be practical for you, come - turn it on, leave - turn it off.
        2. Tver is a good option for soils with high waters, Sledges for heaving.
        3. High-quality performance of the case in both models. The sleigh is made of fiberglass reinforced, that is, there are no seams. Polypropylene tver with stiffening ribs.

        The septic “Eurotank” works on the same principle as the previous two models (without a control unit). In comparison with them, however, it has several disadvantages:

        1. The compressor is installed directly in the septic tank itself. At least it’s not practical to open the cover and on / off each time during arrival / departure, but at the maximum in case of clogging the drains can rise and flood the compressor. Will lead to the need to buy a new one.
        2. Complete with septic tank the weakest compressor is delivered. Objectively, you should immediately abandon it.
        3. The quality of soldering the case is poor.
        4. Design flaws associated with airlift. The tube that delivers air is sealed with a small hole made. It is necessary to trim the end and install a crane with which it is easier to carry out adjustment. Otherwise, the station will not function.

        The advantage of Eurotank is primarily its price and a fairly good level of reliability, but only if the deficiencies are eliminated during installation.

    • Roma, do not tell me the name of the system?

    • Elena

      Good afternoon. Please tell me the name of the septic tank and the company where it was ordered. Thank.

  4. Stanislav

    Put the septic tank BARS-Bio 5 about 6 years ago. I call the cesspool machine every three years. Everything suits me. We direct water to the filtering well from concrete rings. It works without electricity and bacteria, and this saves money. I advise everyone!

  5. Alexander

    Hello everyone!) Thanks for the cool article!
    I wanted to share my experience. If the drain from the washing machine goes into the general sewer, then be especially careful when choosing a washing product! Especially that the powder or gel does not contain phosphates, parabens and dioxanes !!! These chemicals not only shorten the life of septic tanks, but also severely pollute nature! Especially phosphates, in our country they have not yet learned to clean them from water bodies! Therefore, for washing. machines choose the most natural means. I use WAVE washing sheets myself: the composition is eco-friendly, so I can recommend it. Doing nothing, increasing the life of septic tanks))

  6. Andrew

    Good day! I set myself a BARS-Aero 7 PLUS, with the removal of purified water in a roadside ditch. You do not need to call an ilosos, just shake out a special container with sludge every 3 months. It works stably, drains go there both from the toilet and from the washing machine, everything is buzzing.

  7. Arthur

    They helped me with the selection of a septic tank at my cottage in a company that sells and installs sold models. I don’t like to bother at all. They all came and installed it for me, my participation was not there at all. Just watched the work. By the way, I’m worth Topas 5.