Types of fecal pumps: how to choose the right equipment for your needs
Sites for pumping wastewater and other liquids with a high level of pollution sooner or later have to buy residents of private houses, and in the country such equipment will be very useful.
In this article, we will consider different types of fecal pumps, which have their own characteristics, advantages and disadvantages. They should be known and taken into account when choosing the right model. Following our advice, you can choose a high-quality device for your needs.
The content of the article:
- Varieties of fecal pumps
- The main varieties of installation method
- How to choose a unit for your needs?
- Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Varieties of fecal pumps
A fecal pump is an equipment with increased capacity designed for pumping viscous liquids with suspended large particles. This type of equipment can be of several types, depending on the design, the principle of operation and installation method. The scope of all types of aggregates is also different.
Scope of sewer pump units
The scope of fecal pumps is quite wide. In agriculture, they are widely used for pumping manure on livestock farms. Still such equipment is needed to control the water level in storm sewers, pumping out flooded rooms, cellars, large tanks and tanks.
In private construction, pumps are necessary for the construction of a sewer system. For the normal movement of sewage fecal water through the pipeline, a slope of at least 3% must be observed. Such an opportunity is not always available.
You can make an additional storage tank and connect it to the main septic tank using the pumping equipment for these purposes. This greatly expands the possibilities when planning bathrooms in the house.
And if the sewage system in your area involves a regular cesspool, you will often be faced with the need to clean it. Calling the sewer, moreover, regular, will fly into a pretty penny, and having bought a simple sewage pump for a cesspool you can pump out the fecal matter yourself.
But it is not necessary to connect the fecal pump only with waste products. Even with the help of such equipment, you can pump water directly from a natural reservoir, river or lake, for example. Algae and garbage can not disable it.
The happy owners of the artificial pond near the house understand that in order to keep the pond clean, it needs to be cleaned periodically, and therefore drained. Nobody will undertake to guarantee perfect purity of water in the pond by the end of the season, so a regular pump is not always appropriate in this situation.
In order not to harm the equipment, a more reliable and durable fecal pump is used.
Features of the use of pumping equipment
To work in extreme conditions that fecal pumps have to cope with, they must be made of durable materials that are resistant to aggressive environments.
The body of fecal pumps of various types can be made of such durable materials:
- stainless steel;
- cast iron;
Another important detail is temperature. The fact is that not all types of fecal sewage pumps are able to cope with hot temperature liquids (above 40 degrees).
This is due to the fact that in some models the pumped liquid is also cooling for the engine. Of course, if the water is too hot, it ceases to fulfill this function and the unit will soon overheat.
In addition, the contents of the cesspool cannot be called homogeneous. It often comes across organic fiber, hygiene items, paper, and more.
In order to easily pump such liquids, fecal pumps are equipped with an additional device - a grinder.
A sewage pump without a grinder is called a drainage pump. It is similar to fecal in principle, but cannot work with a liquid in which large particles are suspended. We recommend that you familiarize yourself with the criteria choosing a drainage pump.
If the particles are smaller than 30 mm in size, theoretically, a sewer unit without a grinder will also cope with this task. Typically, in domestic conditions, these are used to pump water from bathtubs, pools.
In order not to worry every time that something gets into the pump and breaks it, it’s better and more practical to immediately take chopper model - for warranty.
As a rule, domestic sewage pumps that are bought for pumping out cesspools do not need increased temperature resistance of the equipment. If the device will pump water from a bathtub, sink or participate in any technological processes associated with high temperatures, this feature of the equipment will need to be taken into account.
Design and marking variations
Depending on the design of the mechanism, these types of domestic and industrial fecal pumps are distinguished:
- waste-mass free vortex;
- fecal mud;
- fecal monoblock.
Sewage pumps are marked SM. This is a type of horizontal equipment with a cantilever shaft. As a rule, one closed wheel is used. Dirty water enters the cast-iron casing and moves in the right direction under the action of centrifugal force.
The free-vortex type of fecal pumps (SMS) is characterized by an open wheel type. The body material and the type of shaft attachment are the same as for the SM. If necessary, the equipment can be removed without disassembling the pipeline and without removing the electric motor.
Sewage-dynamic fecal pumps can be of two types: horizontal and vertical (SD and SDV, respectively). The case is usually made of gray cast iron. This type of equipment is equipped with one closed centrifugal wheel.
It is units with the marking of diabetes that are most often used by utilities for sewage pumping.
Fecal mud pumps (FGP and FGS - submersible and stationary, respectively) are equipped with an open centrifugal wheel. They withstand temperatures up to 55 degrees and have wide openings for free passage of foreign inclusions.
In the agricultural industry, livestock farms and poultry farms use monoblock fecal pumps with an asynchronous motor (CMF). This type of equipment has a built-in electric motor. The motor is completely sealed and has no contact with manure.
The main varieties of installation method
To choose the type of equipment that suits you, it is not necessary to delve into the intricacies of the operation of the electric motor and calculate the necessary force of the impact of the impeller on the contents of the septic tank or cesspool. At the household level, it is enough to choose the desired type depending on the installation method.
Allocate submersible, semi-submersible and surface fecal pumps. Among these species stands the sewerage system for toilets.
View # 1 - Submersible Sump Pump
Submersible type of fecal pumps is perfect for pumping a cesspool at the cottage or in a country house. The unit is mounted at the bottom of the tank, it is completely in the water, which is why it bears such a name. This is an easy-to-use, fairly productive and inexpensive type of equipment for pumping feces.
Since this type involves cooling the engine directly with the pumped mass, it is not suitable for liquids with temperatures above 40 degrees.
At the same time, the pump cannot run dry for a long time. To prevent this situation, the unit is equipped with a special circuit breaker. It works on the principle of a float. When the liquid level approaches critical, an emergency power off is triggered.
The main disadvantage of the submersible type of fecal pumps is the complexity of the installation. Since the bottom of the septic tank at the time of installation of the unit is covered with dirty drains, it will not work to install the equipment without staining hands.
The installation process is as follows:
- At the bottom of the pit, a nozzle is mounted, on which the unit will subsequently be fixed.
- Special guides are attached to the nozzle - the unit will move along them to the installation site.
- The equipment is connected to a strong cable or steel chain.
- The cable tension is relaxed and the equipment is immersed in the liquid along the guides.
- When the unit has reached the bottom, it is put on a pre-mounted pipe. Fixation is carried out by gravity.
After proper installation, if necessary, it is easy to remove the pump from the pit for repair or for another reason using a fixed cable. It is the submersible view that is equipped with grinders, since it is technically difficult to install it on other models.
Recommendations on choosing the best fecal pump for a cesspool reviewed here.
View # 2 - semi-submersible wastewater pump
A less common type of fecal pumps for pumping wastewater in private households is semi-submersible. This view involves the immersion of the suction pipe in a liquid, while the engine of the unit is located on a special platform above the water.
The motor part of the unit is always located above the surface of the water thanks to the static base platform. This greatly facilitates the maintenance of equipment, its repair and maintenance.
The automatic system of switching on the device starts pumping when the liquid reaches a certain level. Similarly, when the height of the wastewater decreases, the system shuts down.
This type of equipment is not equipped with grinders, therefore very contaminated water with large inclusions greater than 15 mm is contraindicated for such a device.
Semi-submersible pumps are not necessarily made of cast iron or stainless steel, since they do not encounter an aggressive environment as tightly as submersible pumps. Housing made of cheaper materials can significantly save manufacturers. Of course, this is reflected in the price of the finished product.
View # 3 - surface or exterior view of pumps
The surface view of the fecal pumps is a unit that is located near the pumped-out tank or pit, and only the suction hose is in contact with sewage.
This design has a number of significant advantages, which have become the reason for the high popularity of this type of equipment:
- low cost;
- simplicity of installation and operation;
- unobstructed access to the mechanism for maintenance.
Surface pumps make materials simpler because contact with dirty liquids is short-lived. Moving, connecting, mounting and repairing this type of equipment is simple and does not require any special techniques.
Of the shortcomings of outdoor units are:
- low power
- relatively low bandwidth;
- air temperature limitation;
- leaky housing.
There is a distance from the pump pumping mechanism to the pumped liquid, sometimes quite large. The relatively low power of the equipment is due to the design features and the principle of operation of this type of units. It is advisable to avoid liquids interspersed with particles larger than 5 mm.
Since at freezing temperatures water can freeze directly in the piping or casing of the surface pump, its use in frost is not allowed. If such a need arises, the equipment is placed in a room or a special caisson is arranged.
View # 4 - forced drainage system for plumbing
The forced sewage system operates on the same principle as other fecal pumps, but install it not in a septic tank, but directly behind the toilet.
This equipment is a centrifugal chopper pump. It is used when a self-flowing scheme of a sewer pipeline is impossible or difficult to implement.
The chopper turns the waste into a homogeneous mass, and the pump directs them in the right direction. Sewer pipes with a diameter of up to 40 mm are used to create the required pressure. The backpressure valve and the charcoal filter protect the room from possible unpleasant odors.
For different plumbing fixtures, there are different types of sewer units. Power is supplied from a conventional 220V outlet.
How to choose a unit for your needs?
When you familiarize yourself with existing types of fecal pumps, the question arises before you, what to look for when choosing? If you take into account several basic parameters, pay attention to the manufacturer and the cost of the equipment, you can choose the right unit for any needs - for pumping water from the pool, basement and more. Fortunately, the choice in the market is great.
If you need a pump to pump water from a pond or other body of water, go this link and see the ranking of the best models and selection tips.
The main characteristic that determines the quality of the fecal pump is performance. It displays how much wastewater can be pumped per unit of time. To find the right amount for servicing a private house, you need to calculate how fast the waste accumulates in the pit and how much it will need to be pumped out at a time.
As a rule, this indicator is measured in m3 / hour and ranges from 5 to 48 cubic meters per hour for industrial models. For domestic use, the lowest performance models are suitable. An average of 10-12 cubic meters per hour will be the best option for a home.
If you need a pump for a summer residence, we recommend that you familiarize yourself with the most suitable types and manufacturers equipment for pumping fecal matter.
Another parameter that is of great importance when choosing is the size of the allowable particles. Again, initially you need to analyze the material with which the equipment will have to work. If you can’t find the model you need, look at the options with the chopper. They are most often suitable for a cesspool.
If the equipment will be submersible, consider the permissible immersion depth. Compare it with the depth of your septic tank and make a selection based on these values. Pay attention to the power of the electric motor. Models from 0.25 kW (for drainage pumps) and up to 4 kW (for industrial units) are presented.
It is also worth measuring in meters the distance from the installation site to the point of transportation of fecal matter. The indicator is taken into account both horizontally and vertically, because with a slope, the pump will have to do more work than under normal conditions.
Additional functionality in the form of a remote control or an automatic on-off system of an electric motor is selected at the request of the customer. Of course, all these “chips” increase the cost of the device.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Information on the operation of different fecal pumps, presented in the video clips, will help determine the choice.
You can watch how the grinder of a submersible pump installation works in this video:
And this video is about how to pump out the drain hole using an immersion device:
As you can see, the choice of such equipment as a fecal pump, necessary for a country house, is not such an easy task. The variety of species and subspecies can confuse anyone. After reviewing each of them and finding out its features, you can choose the right model for domestic use.
In the process of choosing the right model for the fecal pump, do you have additional questions? Ask them below under our article - our experts and owners of such equipment will try to clarify the situation.
Or maybe you use a fecal pump in the country and want to share experience with beginners? Write your opinion about the device, tell us about the pros and cons of your model.