On surface drainage on city streets: types, purpose and rules of arrangement

Nikolay Fedorenko
Checked by a specialist: Nikolay Fedorenko
Author: Antonina Turyeva
Last update: December 2019

The removal of rainwater from the streets is one of the sore issues among residents of many cities. It was raining a little, and there was no way to get to the entrance - a huge puddle formed on the way. You know the situation, right? But how can you get rid of her?

The solution to the problem lies in the proper arrangement of surface drainage on city streets. And what it is and what other problems this system solves - we will discuss all issues in our article. We will tell about the device of linear and point drainage, we will give recommendations on the selection of suitable materials. We also touch on the design, legislative regulation and installation of the system.

What problems does the drainage system solve?

The problem of removing rain and melt water, as well as drains from watering and washing streets, is quite relevant in a modern city. To solve it, equip a surface drainage system - a set of trays, sand traps, drainage wells and other elements of engineering equipment assembled into a single drainage system.

Benefits of surface drainage

The drainage system effectively removes excess moisture and water from precipitation, sending it away from residential buildings, roads, parks, squares. That allows you to remove the hydraulic load on the roads and foundations of apartment buildings and cottages. And, as a result, extend their service life by 2-3 times.

Visually about the problems that arise due to improperly arranged drainage or its complete absence in the next photo selection.

As you can see, a properly designed and well-assembled drainage system has a number of advantages:

  • You can improve the territory by planting flowers, shrubs, arranging recreation areas.
  • The system allows you to protect the foundation of buildings from destruction, to increase the overhaul interval.
  • Water will not accumulate and stagnate in basements and basements, which will extend their service life.
  • The absence of an increase in humidity will prevent the formation and spread of mold, fungi and other harmful microorganisms.
  • Timely drainage will allow to avoid leaching of soil and to extend the life of pavement, paving slabs.

In other words, the presence of surface drainage makes it possible to create comfortable conditions for the townspeople to operate streets, local territories, recreation and entertainment areas.

Drainage from various facilities

Due to frequent and sometimes intense precipitation, the issue of drainage is especially relevant - even 2 mm of precipitation in the city provide a drain. The reason for this is the waterproof coatings present in large quantities - this is asphalt on roads and yards, roofs of houses, etc.

Therefore, it is so important to collect surface water in a timely manner from the local area, parking lots, train stations, parks, squares, roads, bridges and other facilities. What the drainage system successfully copes with by collecting waste water and directing it to treatment facilities.

The importance of drainage from various territories in a city is difficult to overestimate. Thanks to a well-equipped collection system of melt and surface drains, the hydraulic load is reduced, which has a positive effect on the external condition of structures and objects, on the intervals between repairs and the duration of the total service life.

Types and device of surface drainage

The surface drainage system can be point and linear. Most often, to ensure the effective functioning of the drainage, these two types of drainage are combined. Next, we will consider what elements such systems consist of. We also talk about the materials from which individual elements are made to assemble the system, and the rules for choosing the right one.

Features of linear drainage

The linear type of arrangement of the drainage system allows you to quickly remove wastewater from a large territory, for example, along the perimeter of an apartment building, a stadium or from a roadway.

The linear drainage system consists of storm water inlets, protective gratings, containers for sand retention (sand traps) and other structural elements. The mounted system is connected to the sewer.

Linear drainage device
Lattices, covering the top of the tray for receiving drains, protect it from the penetration of large debris and guarantee the safety of pedestrians and vehicles

All components for assembling the drainage system are made of fiber-reinforced concrete, concrete, polymer concrete, plastic, stainless steel. Depending on the installation location and the expected loads, products of a standard or reinforced series are selected.

Consider their features on Standartpark product exampleconsisting of a base and reinforced series.

Series Products Basic (standard) involve use in low-traffic conditions - park areas, transitional sidewalks, sports facilities, cottages and improvement of the local area. The load class is A15-C250, which corresponds to a weight of up to 25 tons.

The hydraulic section of the trays is 100-300 mm. The material for manufacturing the elements: polymer concrete, fiber concrete, plastic (trays), stainless steel, galvanized steel, copper, cast iron (protective grilles).

Series Drive (reinforced) - the products are designed for operation under conditions of increased load from 25 to 60 tons, strength class from C250 to E600. It is intended for use in areas with heavy traffic, including heavy freight transport. They are made of plastic, polymer concrete and durable concrete. The hydraulic section (product design width) is 100, 150 and 200 mm.

Concrete drainage trays
Trays and protective lattices various in color, dimensions. They are mounted along the roads, around the perimeter of houses and cottages, to collect drains from the local area

Reinforced series Max differs from the previous ones in the increased level of load - the products have a high strength class D400, E600 or F900, which allows them to withstand loads up to 90 tons.

Reinforced concrete, polymer concrete and plastic are used for manufacturing, reinforcing trays with galvanized nozzles. Lattices are made of impact resistant cast iron.

Airport Line Drain
The peculiarity of the Max series products is the possibility of fixing bolts and nuts. This design provides high maintainability of linear drainage

What is spot drainage made of?

Another type of surface drainage is local storm water inlets (point, local). They, like the linear system, collect drains to further direct them into the storm. But the collection takes place at one point - under the drainpipe, under the watering tap, at the entrance to the house, at the entrance and other places of the most likely formation of puddles.

The device and the main structural elements of the point system can be found in the following image.

Point drainage option
The point type of drainage allows you to effectively collect the drains into the storm water inlet. Which top is covered with a protective grill made of durable material

We will consider the characteristics of products for assembling a point system using Standartpark products as an example:

  • Standard series Basic - a point drainage system, including a plastic rain collector and a water intake grill. It can be equipped with an additional waste basket and a siphon partition. Designs are intended for installation in places with a light load - the non-intensive movement of passenger cars and pedestrians.
  • Reinforced series Max Designed for high and ultra high loads. Storm water tanks (wells) are made of polymer concrete and fiber concrete, reinforced with galvanized steel nozzles. Grids for protection of the storm water inlet are made of heavy-duty cast iron, which corresponds to the load of class D400 E600 and F900.

Storm water inlets can be used as sand traps or drainage wells. To build a well, you need to install several containers on top of each other, thus increasing the desired length. Multi-section storm water inlets are also used as inspection wells.

Point elements can be mounted together with a linear system - the reinforced series is suitable as sand traps for reinforced trays, the hydraulic section of which is 300, 400, 500 mm.

Storm water inlet with trays
The design of reinforced storm water inlets allows connection to sewer pipes. Additionally, the storm water tank can be equipped with a removable waste basket. Which is easy to remove and clean as it is filled.   

If you are interested in the arrangement of drainage for domestic use, we recommend that you look at the manufacturing and connection information homemade drainage well.

Material Guidelines

terms of Use - the fundamental criterion on which to rely when selecting elements of the system. Therefore, it is so important to consider where the system will be installed, what loads are expected, and the climatic features of the region.

Let's talk more about the nuances that should be considered when choosing equipment for the installation of a surface drainage system, and especially trays and protective gratings:

  • load class;
  • hydraulic calculation;
  • bandwidth
  • distance to the collector.

Strength class (load) - this is the maximum allowable weight, under the influence of which the product will not lose its performance. By production of trays are guided by the EN 1433 standard.

Water consumption or hydraulic calculation calculated in l / s, when calculating which take into account:

  • precipitation intensity according to SNiP 2.04.03-85;
  • runoff surface coefficient;
  • drain area;
  • The standard rainfall in the region.

The parameter is equally important bandwidth tray - that is, its ability to divert a certain amount of runoff per second. What is especially important with heavy rainfall or heavy snowmelt. For example, with a hydraulic diameter of 200 mm, the drainage capacity of a plastic tray is about 18 l / s, for concrete and polymer concrete products this figure is up to 11 l / s.

Distance to collector
When measuring the distance of the drainage system from the place of receiving the runoff to its sending to the collector, the slope angle must be calculated, which directly affects the water flow rate

It is important that the high drainage capacity corresponds to the margin of safety of the individual elements from which the drainage system is assembled.

Subtleties of system design and installation

Designing and installing a drainage system is an initial task that should be carried out at the beginning of construction. At the same time, it is important to address the issue of sewage disposal, both in the city and in the country estate, in an integrated manner, taking care of surface drainage, the arrangement of storm sewers, household drainage, and landscaping.

How is a drainage project drawn up?

When designing a surface drainage system, it will be necessary to take into account a number of factors, including topography, amount of precipitation, type of soil, depth of groundwater distribution, type of facility, purpose and operating conditions of the facility.

To draw up a project, you should contact the design service, whose specialists will draw up the project in accordance with the norms and requirements of SNiP.

Why do you have to provide such documents:

  • The general plan of the site where the dimensions and location of all buildings and structures are plotted.
  • A site plan with a topographic survey of the area, with a designation of the location of the storage capacity of the effluent / drainage well.
  • Technical report on the geotechnical conditions of the territory.

When drawing up the project, specialists will definitely select the suitable equipment for equipping the system with an indication of the strength class and the required number of structural elements.

Technical Solution Example
The diagram shows an example of a technical solution for drainage with trays through a ladder using a reinforced series for arranging linear drainage

Designing consists in calculations and choosing the optimal place for laying linear drainage.

The project includes the following calculations and schemes:

  • Placement of linear drainage trays.
  • Calculation of the hydraulic section of the trays, the selection of their optimal location.
  • Location of sectional storm water inlets, taking into account the estimated points of maximum discharge of effluents.
  • Connection points for drainage pipes (their slope angle) and inspection wells with an indication of their location on the plan.
  • Mounting schemes for all elements of the drainage system - trays, storm water inlets, inspection wells.
  • A comprehensive list of everything necessary for the arrangement of the system, elements - trays, storm water inlets, pipes, wells, manholes and all components.

Such a project will make it possible to implement an effective surface drainage system for a specific territory. For an example, you can go to the following link and see an example point drainage.

We have other articles on the design of drainage systems on our site:

  1. Site drainage project: selection of location, slope, depth, drainage system elements
  2. Calculation of storm sewers: an analysis of important design features

Key System Installation Rules

Installation of the system is carried out in accordance with the approved project and taking into account the recommendations of a particular manufacturer, from whom elements of a surface-type drainage system are purchased. By the way, all components are best purchased from one manufacturer, whose products suit you according to their characteristics and price category.

Next, we briefly consider the basic rules and stages of the installation of a surface drainage system.

First, with special grips, the workers manually lay and seal the water pipes. Then, a concrete “pillow” is poured into the trench, the thickness of which is indicated in the recommendations of the tray manufacturer. The cord marks the line for laying trays for drain assembly.

First of all, sand traps are installed, and then proceed to the installation of trays, installing them end-to-end. All connection points are sealed.

Tray mounting
During installation, it is important to ensure that the edges of all gutters are 3 mm below the coating level. A protective grill is installed on top of them, which is fixed with the bolts / clips included in the kit

A linear drainage system is connected to a common sewage system through sand traps. It is also important to provide a point drainage device in places where water flows from the pipe.

As for the installation time of the system, then specialists, if minor volumes of work are expected, can cope even in one day.

Are you interested in the issue of arranging drainage in a private house? In this case, we recommend that you read this article.

Regulatory Drainage Requirements

The arrangement of surface drainage in a modern city is regulated by a number of documents, starting with design and ending with requirements for the quality of materials and their technical characteristics.

Drainage of sports complexes
For example, sports complexes and sports grounds are in the sphere of influence of the Technical Committee of the International Association of Athletics Federation. Therefore, the organization controls the drainage systems by this organization

Next, consider the main ones:

  1. Arrangement of external sewage networks - SNiPa 2.06.15-85.
  2. Designing systems for protecting territories from flooding and flooding - SP 104.13330.2016.
  3. General norms for the construction and improvement of urban areas Town Planning Code of the Russian Federation dated December 29, 2004 N 190-ФЗ.
  4. General rules for the construction of buildings, structures and utilities - SNiP 12-01-2004.
  5. Drainage systems for road construction - STO 221 NOSTROY 2.25.103-2015.
  6. The device of drainage networks during the construction of airfields - STO 221 NOSTROY 2.25.114-2015.
  7. And other legal acts.

General requirements for materials for the arrangement of drainage systems are set out in GOST 33068-2014 (EN 13252: 2005). Recommendations for the calculation of drainage systems in the construction of roads ODM 218.2.055-2015. Technical conditions for storm water inlets are set out in GOST 3634-99.

Drainage system cleaning
For the cleaning and cleaning of gutters, trays, pipes, drains and other engineering structures designed to drain surface and ground water from yards, the persons responsible for cleaning the respective territories are responsible

Conclusions and useful video on the topic

Guidance on the arrangement of a surface drainage system can be found in the following video:

A properly designed and installed drainage system will allow you to maintain an attractive appearance for the landscaped areas of a modern city, garden plots and private households. It will also extend the life of roads, bridges, foundations of buildings and residential homes, reducing the hydraulic load on the structure. But to create a drainage project, it is better to contact specialists who will take into account the type of soil, climatic features and a number of other important points.

Do you have your own opinion on the appropriateness of the device drainage system? Or do you want to supplement the above material with useful recommendations and facts? Write your comments, participate in discussions - the comment form is located a bit below.

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