Do-it-yourself site drainage: features of the construction of various types of drainage

Vasily Borutsky
Checked by a specialist: Vasily Borutsky
Author: Natalya Listyeva
Last update: April 2019

In areas where groundwater strata lie very close to the surface and an impressive amount of precipitation falls during the year, natural bogging of the soil occurs, the foundation of the capital buildings is washed out and the basements are flooded.

To protect the house from these unpleasant phenomena and remove excess moisture from the ground, you can hire a construction team with special equipment. She will quickly and professionally carry out all the work, but this “pleasure” will cost a lot, which is not always acceptable, agree?

In order to save the family budget, you can do the drainage of the site with your own hands, spending much more time on it and saving a very substantial amount. And how to do it right and where to start, we will consider in our article - we will analyze the features of surface and deep drainage, we will give recommendations on the design of each of these types of drainage systems.

What problems does the drainage system solve?

Correct drainage of excess water from the sole foundation residential buildings and outbuildings protects buildings from rainfall, the appearance of non-aesthetic moist spots, darkening of corners and the formation of molds, and cellars from annual seasonal flooding.

The soil does not “float”, and at low temperatures there are no consequences of frost heaving, “squeezing” buildings from the soil. Layers, paths and sidewalks located on the territory do not crack and are kept in perfect condition.

In well-drained areas, sewage treatment facilities and facilities work long and reliably. Even with an increase in the seasonal level, groundwater gets a path to the outflow and does not provoke the exit of septic tanks and sewage from the cesspools.

Moisture from precipitation, leaving the drain channels in a timely manner, does not react with salts contained in the soil and does not form aggressive compounds that decompose building materials.

High-quality drainage does not allow puddles formed after rain to stagnate and waterlog the soil in the garden, thereby causing water erosion.

In areas with a pronounced slope, the drainage system during heavy rainfall redirects water flows to drainage channels, thereby preventing soil erosion and maintaining an attractive appearance of the general soil surface.

In conjunction with roof-storm roofing communications, the drainage system quickly removes excess water from the perimeter of land ownership, prevents it from seeping into basement-basement rooms and prevents flooding of both buildings and the entire site.

Land affected by water erosion
Water erosion negatively affects the state of land cover and significantly reduces the level of productivity of garden and garden crops

Where is water drainage necessary?

A flat area certainly needs drainage. If the moisture generated as a result of heavy rains and melting snow does not find outflow paths, it simply remains in place, intensively soaks the soil and leads to bogging, the appearance of dirt and global waterlogging of the earth.

A site located in a lowland disappears without a good drainage system. All water from higher places flows to it, and the territory, at best, is oversaturated with moisture, and at worst it is flooded.

The land, located under a sharp slope, without drainage loses a number of its valuable qualities. Decreasing water too quickly erodes the upper fertile soil layer and significantly reduces the yield level.

For areas with clay and loamy soils, drainage is an objective need. Rocks of this type are characterized by high density and poor conductivity. The moisture that precipitated in the form of atmospheric precipitation stagnates for a long time and leads to general waterlogging of the terrain, soil shifts and a violation of the fixed stability of the foundations of residential and commercial buildings.

You can not do without a complete drainage system and where the level of occurrence of natural groundwater is less than 1 meter. If you ignore the tap, there is a risk of flooding the basement and basement, the integrity of the foundation is violated, and cracks appear on the main, bearing walls. All this in the future may lead to partial or complete collapse of residential and commercial buildings.

In the case of a seasonal increase in the natural level of groundwater, houses and farm buildings with a deep foundation are at risk. In this case, its sole is at risk, and moisture and dampness may appear in basements and socles, even equipped with good waterproofing.

To avoid these unpleasant moments, you must design a drainage system and introduce it at the planning stage of building a house or immediately after acquiring real estate.

Cracks in the wall of a residential building
An almost mandatory phenomenon, which leads to the lack of a high-quality drainage system in the area, is cracks in the walls. Of course, they can be putty, but the integrity of the internal space will already be violated and the room will become vulnerable to the penetration of damp and cold

For areas partially or fully concreted, paved with paving stones, paving slabs or colored mosaics, the presence of drainage channels and gutters just a must. Otherwise, after rains or snowmelt, puddles will stagnate on the surface, causing cracking of the upper decorative layer and violating the integrity of the entire coating.

It is necessary to equip drainage also where lawns equipped with progressive automatic irrigation systems are located. This will allow you to control the level of soil moisture and prevent the death of rare plants as a result of siltation of the soil.

Drainage channels make it possible to quickly remove water from the site and do not allow it to flood buildings, spoil the landscape design and harm the infrastructure of the territory.

Types and types of drainage systems

Drainage complexes vary in technical characteristics, efficiency and arrangement. For creating with your own hands on private land plots, drainage of deep and surface type of occurrence is most suitable. The choice depends on the purpose for which it is planned to use the installed system in the future.

Features of surface drainage

The organization of surface drainage with their own hands on private land plots is justified and relevant.

Despite its simplicity, the system effectively removes excess moisture formed during precipitation and snowmelt. In addition, it contributes to the drainage of water that accumulates during the washing of a car, irrigation of lawns or rinsing of concrete or block paths located on the territory of the property.

Surface drainage system elements
Surface drainage complexes are classified as budgetary. Their arrangement does not entail the use of expensive materials, but comes down to the installation of storm water inlets and trays that contribute to the correct outflow of excess water from the site

Stock communications are located around residential buildings and farm buildings, at the locations of paved areas and when leaving the garage and from the site itself.

Variety # 1 - linear system

The linear system is a construction of trays placed in specially prepared trenches along with the water level. During installation, the channels are dug in compliance with the condition of a constant bias to the side drainage well.

In this embodiment, water flows through the system by gravity and no additional means are used for its movement.

For full functioning, the complex is equipped with sand traps that prevent siltation of communications, and is closed by durable gratings on top, which allow pedestrians and vehicles (not only small cars, but also trucks) to move quietly on the surface of the site.

Linear channels have high traffic and have the ability to pass a large amount of water through themselves. They are considered the most successful drainage option for large areas and large land holdings.

Plastic sand trap for drainage system
A sand trap made of heavy-duty plastic has several advantages at once. It is lightweight, easy to install, reliably protects the drainage channels from possible clogging and costs quite reasonable money. These parameters determine the high popularity of the element in private construction.

Variety # 2 - Point Drainage

Point drainage collects water in separate areas and redirects its surplus to the general storm-sewage system. Usually used where linear drainage is not possible or not considered appropriate.

When installing communications, storm water inlets are located in places of the greatest accumulation of water, for example, directly under rain gutters, irrigation taps, water columns, at the entrance to the garage, under the entrance gates or even just in areas where water stagnates most often after irrigation or heavy rainfall.

Puddle at the base of the foundation
Even small puddles formed after watering, rainfall or snowmelt can provoke problems and lead to damage to residential and farm buildings. To avoid these troubles, spot drainage wells should be installed in risk areas

The point version of the drainage system effectively operates independently where local water collection is required or serves as a practical complement to any other system. Needs maintenance and regular cleaning.

The volumetric version is much less popular than the other two options described above. It is more labor intensive and entails large-scale earthworks. The system itself is formed from a mixture of sand, gravel, geotextile layer, gratings and soil. All these elements are located in areas where there is open soil.

In the presence of volumetric drainage, only the water necessary for natural moisture remains in the soil. All surplus through the system goes into the deeper layers and does not deliver any inconvenience or difficulty to the owners of the property. Most often, such communications are mounted in park areas, on playgrounds and lawns in order to maintain optimal humidity of the useful area.

The choice of a drainage system is carried out individually for each land plot, taking into account its location, size, topography, physical and mechanical properties of soils, the level of groundwater, and the tendency of the area to swamp.

According to the depth of laying, drainage systems are divided into deep and surface:

Distinctive features of deep drainage

Not all cases manage to get along only with a surface drain. To solve more global problems, for example, lowering the general level of groundwater or protecting against flooding of a certain area, it is necessary to lay a deep drainage system in the territory.

Depth drainage happens:

  • pipe;
  • reservoir;
  • roundabout.

Next, we analyze the features of each of these varieties of drainage.

View # 1 - pipe laying method

The pipe laying method is relevant where groundwater occurs at great depths. The arrangement involves the use of drains - special perforated pipes. They are placed underground, having previously provided an appropriate level of slope towards the collector.

Moisture enters the drains through the holes and, passing through the channels, flows into the well of a storm sewer system, into a collector or a natural or artificial reservoir located outside the area of ​​the land to be equipped.

The location of the elements of deep drainage in the area
The deep drainage system is located in areas where groundwater lies at a distance of up to 2.5 meters from the surface. It is highly efficient, but entails significant earthworks. It is recommended to lay such communications before the start of capital construction and landscaping

View # 2 - reservoir drainage

Reservoir drainage is very common and is carried out in areas with difficult hydrogeological conditions.

In addition, he:

  • Provides an outflow of moisture from residential buildings even in the presence of a closely lying massive water reservoir or pressure groundwater.
  • Helps reduce groundwater levels where other types of drainage systems cannot cope with this task.
  • It demonstrates high efficiency in areas with a layered structure of the aquifer and copes with the removal of moisture from buildings that need absolute dryness and absolutely do not accept water penetration due to certain operational characteristics.

In case of acute need, reservoir drainage can be mounted on loamy and clay soils, acting as a preventive barrier to dampness and moisture.

When laying at the foot of the building in the immediate vicinity of the foundation, it is mandatory to equip the crushed stone pillow, which acts as a natural filter for the water stream.

Perforated polymer pipes for drainage
Drains made of modern polymer material are offered on the market in a wide variety of modifications. Their main advantages are profitability, reliability, ease of installation and excellent performance

View # 3 - ring drainage

Ring drainage is used to protect against flooding of basements and basements of buildings erected on sandy type soil. If desired, or if necessary, by a drainage system around the house it is possible to equip not only one house, but also a group of structures available on the site.

If groundwater very close to the buildings comes from only one side, it is permissible to lay an open drainage ring and create a barrier to moisture and moisture in the most vulnerable place.

For frequent land plots, it is allowed to organize drainage of one of the most suitable types or arrange several systems to ensure the most effective outflow of excess moisture.

A drainage system for collecting water penetrating the first layer of soil or soil in the green area of ​​the site is arranged in the traditional sequence:

How to organize surface water drainage?

Before you begin to carry out drainage measures on your own land plot with your own hands, determine which system is needed, and then draw up an approximate work plan.

If the difficulties with leaving the water concern only certain parts of the territory and arise only during heavy rains or active snowmelt, the owners, as a rule, are limited to local drainage.

Drainage well under a storm pipe
If water flows uniformly over the entire site, then there is no need for a large-scale drainage system. It is enough to place the water collectors under the storm pipes, and the problem of flooding or the penetration of dampness into the house will forever disappear from your circle of interests

To do this, in places of maximum accumulation of water, water receivers are placed: sealed containers or drainage wells connected by channels with a common storm sewer. With a more global problem, communications are being laid along the site for linear drainage.

For equipment, the systems first draw up a project for the location of all communications and determine the location of the main reservoir for collecting excess water. The entire territory of the site is covered with a network of trenches with a depth of about half a meter. The frequency of location is determined based on the level of swampiness of the entire territory. If the ground is very wet, prepare the maximum number of channels for removal.

For full and high-quality operation of the system, drainage trenches are laid with a bias towards the location of the future water intake. If the land on the territory has an uneven surface, the channels dig strictly down in relation to the relief.

When the site is a flat area, the slopes are created artificially. This is necessary so that the water does not stagnate in the drainage lines, but leaves as quickly as possible into natural or artificial water intakes.

The most frequent drainage grid is equipped in areas with clay and loamy soil. On lighter soils, channels are laid less often. Narrow trenches dig along the edges of the perimeter of the entire area, gradually increasing their latitude as they approach the main drainage well. The widest trench is left for the canal, through which the entire volume of water passes into the drain compartment.

Concrete pad linear drain tray
By installing a tray for linear drainage, a concrete pillow is first made in the trench with a height of at least 10 centimeters. It clearly fixes the drainage in the ground and does not allow it to shift in the process of possible subsidence of the soil. For additional reliability, a reinforcing mesh is laid inside the channel

When the system is fully laid, it is tested for performance. To do this, from several points with the help of hoses, powerful flows of water are released. If the water leaves at all sites evenly, then the complex is functioning normally.

When in some places the moisture flows more slowly or stagnates, the level of the slope of the trench increases. Then the channel channels are closed with bars so that leaves, small debris and other foreign elements that can clog the drainage system do not fall there.

Concrete tray with galvanized steel grill
For the equipment of surface drainage systems, it is worth using a concrete tray with a galvanized steel grate. It has excellent operational characteristics, transmits water at a speed of more than 4 l / s and can withstand a load of up to one and a half tons

Upon completion of works related to the arrangement of linear drainage, the adjacent territory is decorated in accordance with their own tastes and the general idea of ​​landscape design adopted on the site.

How to do deep drainage?

For the correct installation of deep drainage on a personal land plot, first of all, they formulate a clear project of all works, establishing the types of soil available on the territory, features of the relief and the level of groundwater occurrence.

This type of research is entrusted to engineering and geological organizations. They will make a complete study of the area, and then provide the customer with a topographic survey that describes in detail the relief, hydrogeological features and geological structure of the site. Having such information at hand, it is not difficult to establish an effective drainage system.

The construction of the system is carried out in the following order:

The main elements of the deep drainage system are drains (pipes of a specific design). They are located below the foundation pillow of the building that they plan to protect, or along the entire perimeter of land ownership at a depth of 80 centimeters to one and a half meters.

Necessary pipe slope make towards a collector, a drain well or any other natural or artificial reservoir located outside the site.

In this way, moisture collected as a result of precipitation is collected and the overall level of groundwater lying nearby is reduced to an uncritical state. In the center of the site and along the edges of the drains are located at a distance of 10-20 meters from each other. The constructions give the shape of a herringbone, where the extreme channels redirect all the water to the main trench leading to the main water intake.

Double Perforated Drain Tab
To enhance the efficiency of the deep drainage system, it is worth using pipes equipped with a two-layer geotextile filter and a circular perforated layer. This type of communication is suitable for all types of soils and has the ability to divert more water.

On absolutely flat sections of the required slope, they are achieved by lowering the trench when digging the bottom. For loamy and clay soils, the optimal slope level is considered to be 2 centimeters per meter of pipe, for sandy soils - 3 centimeters. If the site has a large area, in order to avoid too global excavation, several manholes.

Communication pipes are equipped with swivel and water intake wells. If necessary, and if it is impossible to remove excess water from the site, add to the remaining elements absorbing (filtering) welldesigned to drain the main volume of water.

Absorption well
Under the base of the absorption well, a bulk layer of rubble or broken brick is necessarily made. This is necessary so that the collected liquid evenly goes into the soil and does not erode the lower layers, causing subsidence of soils

Immediately before laying the pipes in the trenches, a 10-centimeter layer of coarse sand and the same layer of crushed stone are poured.

The resulting cushioning pad does not allow communications to break under the weight of the soil. In order to avoid siltation of pipes, the channels are laid with geotextiles.

Depth drainage system after installation
It is desirable to carry out the laying of deep drainage on the site after all heavy construction work so that the communications do not sag and crack as a result of intense operational load

One more layer of sand and gravel is made on top of the decomposed pipes, and the remaining voids are filled with earth, making mounds on the surface. When the system finally "sits" in the trenches, the poured earth itself will fall to a natural level.

A correctly and clearly installed system ensures timely and quick removal of moisture from the site and reliably protects buildings from flooding and subsequent destruction.

Conclusions and useful video on the topic

Video tips for those who decide to independently engage in the installation of a drainage system in their own country or garden plot.

The video demonstrates how to equip a surface drainage system in the area:

Useful video information on the organization of drainage around an apartment building:

Knowing the rules for installing drainage systems and following the above tips, it will not be difficult to make a drain on a personal land plot. If difficulties arise, you can turn to specialists, and they will professionally help in solving problems.

Have you thought about the drainage device around the house? Do you have questions after reading our material? Ask them under the article - we will try to clarify the contentious issues as much as possible.

Or have you built an effective drainage system with your own hands and want to share your experience with other users? Write your recommendations, add photos - beginners in this matter will be very grateful to you.

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Visitors Comments
  1. Zhenya

    The site is below the neighbors and constantly flooded in the spring, then the water then stands until May. The soil is sandy loam. Will the drainage help or will it be necessary to bring in the earth and raise it?