Gasification of industrial facilities: options and norms for gasification of industrial enterprises
What causes the need to lay the gas supply system to the plant, to the factory, to the plant or to the power plant? First of all, the gasification of industrial facilities provides them with uninterrupted heating.
Secondly, it is the possibility of continuous supply of hot water. Thirdly, gas can be used as fuel in various technological processes, and some enterprises need steam supply.
We will talk about how the organization of water supply systems at production enterprises is carried out. In our article, we describe in detail the options for installing gas supply systems and their popular varieties. The costs allocated to the construction of main gas supply circuits are considered.
The content of the article:
Gaseous fuel options
The main consumers of gas are factories and power plants. They use gas as an efficient fuel. The enterprises of the chemical, metallurgical, and engineering industries also use gas in the implementation of technological processes. In cities, the food industry is actively switching to gas.
Gas supply to an industrial enterprise depending on fuel sources can be carried out in various ways. Large industrial enterprises use their own gas sources. In most cases, this is generator, coke or blast furnace gas. During the processing of coal, artificial gases are emitted: lighter gas, coke oven gas and others.
The interaction of chemical elements in production processes causes the release of gas in the form of a by-product. If insufficiency and lack of resources are detected, then industrial enterprises are often connected to the main gas pipeline where natural gas is supplied: standard or associated petroleum.
The best option for fuel for gas supply is considered natural gas.
This is due to the following advantages:
- low price for natural gas;
- high calorific value;
- the ability to quickly and cheaply transport;
- a small amount of harmful emissions into the air basin during combustion;
- full automation of combustion.
Gas wins compared to other types of fuel due to the fact that its supply is mainly carried out through pipelines.
This allows owners of industrial enterprises to free up land intended for solid fuels and their waste. There is also no need to have vehicles for the constant transportation of large volumes of fuel.
Types of gas supply systems
Industrial enterprises can be gasified by several schemes, which differ depending on the design conditions of each individual object.
Single stage gas supply systems are designed in cases when:
- It is planned to connect the enterprise to the city gas pipeline with a low pressure level;
- It is envisaged that the industrial enterprise will be connected to the city gas network through a central gas control station, if necessary, to ensure low pressure in the object’s gas pipeline;
- We are developing the connection of an industrial facility to city networks by connecting to a central system through a gas distribution point with a future average level of gas pressure in the pipes.
Installation of two-stage systems is provided in the following cases:
- when connecting workshop gas distribution units of an industrial facility to the city gas main through medium and low pressure distribution points in the workshop gas pipelines;
- when attaching workshop gas distribution units of an industrial enterprise to a medium-pressure urban gas network with an average pressure level in workshop gas pipelines;
- when connecting workshop gas distribution units to the central gas distribution point of city networks with an average pressure level in inter-workshop gas pipelines and a low level of pressure in workshop gas pipelines;
- when connecting workshop gas distribution units to the central gas distribution point of city networks at an average level gas pressure in inter-workshop gas pipelines and with an average level of pressure in the workshop gas pipelines.
When designing a gas supply system for a separate industrial enterprise, engineers often encounter the need to combine concepts for the specific conditions of the gasified facility.
Centralized gasification of industrial enterprises
Industrial gas supply systems include a number of components.
The main components include:
- gas pipeline inlets on the territory of the organization;
- network of inter-workshop gas pipelines;
- internal workshop gas supply system;
- regulatory points and installations;
- gas flow measuring instruments;
- gas pipelines for gas consuming devices.
Gasification by connecting to the main gas pipeline is characteristic of the largest plants - the flagships of industrial production. The vast majority of small and medium-sized industry representatives use urban gas supply services.
Gas supply to industrial facilities comes from a looped distribution network. There are three levels of pressure: high, medium and low. Most plants and plants are powered by high and medium pressure air defense systems. And only a small number of small urban industrial facilities have low pressure.
Two inlet pipelines from different highways are connected to large industrial facilities, which are then combined on the area of the facility. Pipelines transporting gas to an object are made land or underground.
Onshore pipelines are a more popular option, as they are easier to inspect and maintain. In the event of gas leaks, such pipelines are not so dangerous. They are also not subject to a constant process of corrosion.
They are installed on supports or carried along fire-resistant outer walls and structures. The laying height is regulated by regulatory documents.
Several taps or valves with a lens compensator are installed throughout the pipe: one outside the industrial building and several, depending on the needs of the enterprise, directly on the site.
At large plants, each inter-workshop gas pipeline has its own separately developed scheme, which is compiled depending on the level of gas consumption. Schemes of inter-workshop gas pipelines by and large differ in the number, location and type of gas control points.
In small factories, powered by a low pressure ring distribution network, gas control points are not usually installed, but installation of a gas flow metering point is required.
If the pressure level is higher than necessary, then a central gas distribution point is installed on the territory of the industrial facility. The device reduces the pressure to the level required at the enterprise.
If necessary, in some workshop providing a different pressure value, a gas distribution unit is installed in it, with which you can adjust the pressure indicators.
If an individual level of pressure is needed in each workshop at an enterprise, then it is possible to conduct a gas pipeline to each individual workshop. For this, a gas distribution unit must first be installed.
Gas consumption at various enterprises is uneven and depends on many factors. Usually, increased resource consumption occurs in the daytime, when the main technological processes are carried out in factories.
On weekdays, at most industrial enterprises, gas consumption is greater than on weekends. However, some factories operate without technological downtime.
To calculate gas consumption, it is important to consider seasonality. In winter, in colder regions, resource consumption is several times higher than in summer. Due to the unevenness of gas consumption, a number of problems arise.
In the summer, remote gas pipelines do not operate at full capacity, and in the winter, there is a need to reduce or completely stop gas supply to individual sections.
In the device of autonomous gas supply networks for enterprises located in the inaccessible area for laying a gas pipeline, special containers are used - gas holders intended for industrial facilities. This option also applies if the organization of a standard gas pipeline is unprofitable.
In order to fully use the resource in the summer, buffer consumers are installed that can run on several types of fuel. They are designed for a quick transition of the unit from the consumption of one resource to another.
Autonomous gas supply to organizations
If an entrepreneur is wondering how to gasify his enterprise, one of the possible solutions is joining a centralized gas supply. However, the law also provides for the use of autonomous gas sources.
The advantages of autonomous gasification include a reduction in gas consumption from the common network. The costs of building an autonomous gas storage, as well as gas tank installation cost on a suburban area, significantly lower than the cost of laying pipes and connecting to a centralized highway.
Such systems are used for the following purposes:
- providing cogeneration plants with necessary fuel for efficient generation of electric and thermal energy;
- fuel supply to gas infrared heaters;
- ensuring continuous operation of gas generators;
- providing the necessary resource for gas-fired boiler houses.
At industrial enterprises, gas can be used as the main energy carrier or as a resource to ensure the operation of the backup energy supply scheme. In the second case, gas holders are purchased, which should be installed strictly in accordance with the standards of GOST and SNiP.
The bodies of gas holders are coated with a protective layer that prevents the processes of electrochemical corrosion.
Among the necessary equipment for conducting an autonomous gas system at the facility, there are:
- Liquid or electric evaporators, which are additionally equipped with a regulatory group. They increase design productivity.
- Mixers installed on pipelines of enterprises connected to the central highway;
- Drain unit allowing condensate to be removed;
- Gas pipelines for various phases of gas mixtures;
- Condensate collectors that collect and drain condensate from the pipeline to evaporators or devices for its disposal;
- Management complex designed to automate the control of the tank farm.
Tank installations have the following working scheme:
- Liquid gas filling;
- Storage of liquid fuel under pressure in a tank;
- The supply of a liquid phase to the evaporator;
- Conversion of a liquid phase to vapor;
- Steam supply to equipment and burners.
Gas is supplied to the evaporator using pumps. The reservoir complex must be equipped with an automatic control system.
The procedure for gasification of an industrial enterprise does not depend on whether gas is used as the main energy source or as fuel for backup energy supply. For gasification of the organization, it is necessary to carry out a number of consecutive measures.
Even at the design stage, the concept of "gasification of an enterprise" is specified and specified. Thus, gasification is indicated sequentially in the documentation: equipment, communication systems, workshop and enterprise.
First of all, you should apply to the design institute. There, heat engineering calculations are carried out and the need for a gasified object in fuel is determined depending on the technological conditions at the enterprise.
The next step is to send a letter to the gas distribution organization of the region. It should contain a request for a certificate confirming the availability of technical feasibility of connecting an industrial facility to regional gas networks.
The listed set of papers should be accompanied by a situational plan and heat engineering calculation carried out at the design institute.
The regional gas distribution organization also receives a certificate of technical feasibility to connect the company to gas distribution networks.
To obtain technical conditions for gasification in the design and technical department of the design organization developing the project and estimate, you must obtain permission to use natural gas as fuel.
A tripartite agreement is also signed between the gas supplier, the consumer and the gas distribution organization. After receiving all the documents and permissions, installation and installation of all systems and equipment is carried out and gas is directly launched.
Gasification service costs
The use of natural gas is economical, uninterrupted supply and high environmental friendliness. When owners and decision-makers of industrial enterprises, factories, factories realize the future benefits of gasification, they are wondering about the cost of gas pipeline services.
Owners of private households ask similar questions. connection cost worries no less than managers and board of directors of enterprises. In essence, the cost items for private and commercial consumers are similar, the difference is mainly in tariff rates.
On the one hand, the necessary documentation can be collected personally. In this case, you will have to face documentation problems, spend personal time, money and delve into all the processes. Direct installation of gas systems should be carried out in accordance with the norms and rules approved by state bodies.
To carry out such work can only companies specializing in the installation of gas pipelines. You can use the services of small teams, contractors or teams of large services.
On the other hand, a number of companies operate on the market, providing comprehensive services for the gas supply of industrial and commercial enterprises. Such organizations for a predetermined amount will carry out the whole range of works, including documenting, procurement of equipment and installation of all systems.
Of course, the services of such companies will cost a lot. However, they guarantee high quality work and fulfill orders as soon as possible.
The cost of services of specialized companies varies depending on a number of factors:
- installed equipment power, measured in kW;
- the number of facilities in the enterprise that will be gasified;
- the presence and quantity of technological gas consuming devices;
- the designed length of the gas pipeline, measured in meters;
- geological conditions of the route along which the pipeline will be carried out.
In order to save on gasification, it is recommended to adhere to the following tips:
- warming of gas-conducting structures reduces heat loss of heated objects and the necessary power of equipment;
- installation of modern heating systems pays off in a short time due to their high energy efficiency;
- in the presence of industrial facilities in the neighborhood, it is worth thinking about the joint design of gas supply paths;
- calculate the most optimal route and method of laying gas paths.
On average, it takes from 12 to 15 months to complete all stages from design to the launch of gas supply systems.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
How to choose and install a gas holder:
Laying a gas pipeline underground:
Carrying out a gas pipeline and adjacent gas systems to industrial facilities is a complex and multi-stage process. For its successful implementation, many nuances and features should be considered. It will also require serious financial investments for the purchase of equipment and payment for installation work.
However, the money spent pays off in the near future. This is due to the low cost of natural gas, good value for money and high environmental friendliness. The company will not need to purchase expensive filtering equipment so as not to pollute the environment.
There are several possible problems that the enterprise will have to face. It may be difficult to obtain agreements and licenses. It is also necessary to obtain the consent of the owners of the land on which the pipeline will be laid. All problems are easily solved by choosing the right approach.
Since working with gas is primarily responsibility and qualification, it is important to choose a good contractor. It is recommended to cooperate with companies with positive experience in laying gas communications. The company must know all the intricacies of work and be aware of its responsibility.
In difficult situations, you have to cooperate with state oversight bodies and fulfill their requirements and recommendations. It is also possible to make adjustments during the installation and installation process.