How to connect a switch with one key: rules and connection diagrams
Various devices are used to control household electric light sources, the most common among all is a switch. This is a simple device located on the wall and connected to wires. The design of the products is different, but the internal circuit diagram for single models is the same.
In our material we will tell you how to connect a switch with one key to quickly make repairs. For convenience, several connection methods with thematic photographs will be shown that demonstrate the installation process.
The content of the article:
- Design and purpose of circuit breakers
- Types of devices for domestic use
- Placement - Convenience and Security
- Three mounting options for single-key switches
- Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Design and purpose of circuit breakers
A switch is a simple mechanical (more rarely electronic) device for contact closure / opening of an electrical circuit in order to turn on / off lighting devices.
We will cover design features and installation of the simplest models - single-key switches.
They consist of 4 main parts:
- work node - metal base with contacts and push-button drive;
- fasteners - legs or antennae of metal connected to a metal plate;
- decoration - panels or frames;
- dynamic part - plastic keys.
Part of the parts, mainly internal, is made of metal, for example, galvanized steel, the external decorative finish is usually made of safe plastic. Ceramic elements that can withstand loads up to 32 A are possible, while plastic is designed for 16 A.
Among the reasons for installing a one-button switch are:
The external and internal structure depends on several factors, for example, functional tasks or potential load. As an additional device in some models there is an LED that provides external illumination.
Switches are installed in all rooms where there are any lighting devices that are not equipped with a power cable (for example, for floor lamps or table lamps it is not needed).
These are most often ceiling or wall lamps, chandeliers, complex lighting systems.
Types of devices for domestic use
There is no strict division into categories, as different manufacturers have their own, “branded” lineups, however, we can distinguish several types of switchesunited by any one sign.
For example, according to the principle of inclusion, all devices can be divided into:
- mechanical - elementary keyboard devices, easy to install and use (the function of a key can be performed by a lever, a toggle switch, a button, a cord, a rotary knob);
- electronic touchdriven by the touch of a hand;
- with remote controlequipped with a remote control or motion sensor.
The first group is considered the most popular, traditional and recognized from the first days of the invention of the electric circuit, the popularity of the third is also gaining momentum, and the second somehow did not take root.
Motion sensors save energy and provide additional protection. For example, if you install a similar device at the entrance to the house, it will signal the appearance of uninvited guests.
By design type, all switches are divided into single-key and multi-key (standard version for domestic use - with 2-3 keys). Each key serves to close / open one lighting circuit.
If the room has several lighting fixtures - a chandelier, ceiling lights and sconces - appropriate three-key switch, which will allow to turn on / off the devices alternately or together.
Also quite popular are two-key switches which you can see in almost every apartment. They are especially relevant for chandeliers with several lamps.
According to the installation method, two groups can be distinguished: with external and internal installation. Outdoor type usually used when wiring is open, and interior - with cables sewn into the wall. To ensure the safety and stability of the installation of the built-in switch, use the mounting box (socket) - a protective plastic case.
Placement - Convenience and Security
Before installation of a switch you should consider the most convenient place for installation and subsequent use. The most advantageous area is located near the entrance doors (from the side of the door handle), but there may be exceptions (for example, next to the head of the bed).
Before drawing up a wiring project, it is better to look into an official document - Electrical Installation Code (Electrical Installation Rules), which governs some of the nuances of installation. For example, paragraph 7.1.48 states that the switch must be at least 60 cm from the shower, and paragraph 7.1.50 allows it to be installed no closer than 50 cm from the gas pipeline.
In bathrooms and saunas, the installation of control devices is prohibited, they must be taken outside the premises (usually in the corridor).
Three mounting options for single-key switches
Consider three switch connection schemes that are similar in design (have one key), but differ in the type of installation. Also, all options are united by the basic law of the introduction of single-key models: a dynamic element opens the "phase", and not "zero". In the opposite case, there is a risk of injury during repair work and even with a simple lamp replacement.
# 1: Photo instruction for installing an outdoor device
The location of the wires for this connection scheme does not matter: they can go on the surface or inside the wall. The outdoor type of switch in the living room is welcome if expensive repairs have just been made and there is no desire to re-tear down the walls and channel the channels.
We will consider the option with external cable laying, in which the wires are enclosed in a corrugated protective channel.
Under the switch, there will be another electrical device - a socket, so the cables for both devices for aesthetic reasons are enclosed in one corrugation.
Selected Circuit Breaker Model - Schneider electric - has a plastic case and degree of protection ip44. Before installation, we take safety measures: turn off the power to the cable on the electrical panel installed on the site or in the corridor.
Use an indicator screwdriver to verify that there is no voltage in the cable. When the issue of power outage is resolved, we take up the disassembly of the switch.
First we take out the key with our hand - this is done quite easily.
The next step is the removal of the working mechanism.
Now you need to accurately determine the installation location of the switch and mark the points on the wall for screwing fasteners. To do this, take an already empty case and apply it to the wall.
We level it, with a marker we designate points for drilling.Using a drill, we drill holes for fasteners (another way of fastening is also possible).
From the switch housing, remove the elastic plug located in the upper part, insert it into the wire hole and the end of the corrugated pipe coming from the ceiling.
Time to proceed directly to the connection. From the ends of the wires we remove the insulating material, we clean 8-10 mm.
We connect the white wire (phase) to the terminal with the designation L, blue - to the other terminal, with the designation "1". Carefully tighten the bolts and place the working unit in the housing.
Reassemble the switch: put the front panel in place, then fix the key.
Do-it-yourself installation of the switch is quite easy, even if the installation is complicated by the presence of additional devices.
However, if you are not sure of the correct action, it is better to be safe and conduct the first connection under the supervision of an experienced electrician.
# 2: Workshop on replacing an old switch
Often, in connection with repairs in an apartment or a private house, you have to dismantle the old switch and install a new, more modern and convenient one in its place.
Consider the main circuit breaker replacement stepsusing step by step photos of the process.
Using a screwdriver, unscrew the screws, remove the plastic cover.
Our task is to determine the "phase".
Alternately, we bring the screwdriver to the contacts, in no case touching them with our hands (it is better to use insulating gloves). For an accurate definition, set the key to both positions.
With the off position, the "phase" supplies only one contact. The second wire is for the lighting fixture.
Having established the purpose of the wires, we turn off the electricity supply, check for the presence or absence of voltage, and making sure of safety, we begin to disassemble the old switch. We unscrew the fasteners of metal holders (“paws”), we get the working unit.
We finally release the mechanism, straighten the wires - the place for the new switch is prepared. We take a new product, purchased in advance, and prepare it for installation, in other words, disassemble.
We remove the key, unscrew the protective panel and see the internal mechanism - with two required clamps and spacer holders.
We clean the ends of the wires by about 1 cm, insert them into the holes located under the upper screws, and make sure that the winding does not slip along with the bare wire. Tighten so that the wires do not move.
After connecting the wires, we insert the working unit into the mounting box.
Set the top panel, fix the key.
So, to install a new switch, we needed tools (screwdriver, pliers, knife, wire cutters, indicator screwdriver), some insulating material and 20 minutes of time. Calling an electrician would cost about 500 rubles.
# 3: Connection diagram with junction box
When bare walls get, which is found in new modern standard houses, you have to independently insert interior doors, floor, tidy the walls.
Wiring is no exception. Therefore, we will consider how to properly connect the circuit breaker together with a lighting fixture, circuit breaker and junction box.
Our goal is to install all the devices in designated areas for them and connect them together with wires, without confusing them. We try to install the junction box in the center.
An open or closed method of cable installation does not fundamentally affect the arrangement of circuit elements.
First of all, we connect an automatic protection device that protects the network from overloads and power surges.
Let's decide wire color which we will need to connect the switch:
- white - phase;
- blue - zero;
- yellow - land.
We clean the wires and insert them into the terminals intended for them. We use the yellow wire for grounding, fixing it separately with a special clamp.
The role of the lamp will be played by an ordinary cartridge and a light bulb (incandescent, LED, energy-saving).
We bring the wires into the installation box to install the switch.
Modern models of switches have marked terminals, which facilitates the fixation of wiring. We insert them into the desired holes and fasten with screws.
All elements of the circuit are connected, it remains to connect the wires in the junction box.
We check the correctness of the connections with an indicator screwdriver and test it - press the switch button.
As you can see, the entire connection scheme can be performed independently using a minimum of simple tools.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Useful video instructions will help novice electricians learn the theory and put it into practice correctly.
Instructions from the manufacturer legrand which will discuss how to install the switch yourself:
From the following video you can find out about connecting a single-key switch and an outlet:
And how to replace the switch with your own hands you will learn from the following video:
As you can see, the principles of connecting various electrical devices are similar, but have slight differences. Having decided to replace the circuit breaker yourself or lay the entire circuit, carefully study the schemes, consult qualified specialists, and be sure to observe safety precautions in the process.
If you still have questions about replacing single-key switches or have additions to the material, please leave your comment in the block below.