Setting a call to the apartment: overview of schemes + step-by-step installation instructions

Amir Gumarov
Checked by a specialist: Amir Gumarov
Author: Tatyana Zakharova
Last update: March 2020

Among the electrical work, there are those that do not require a specialist call. Knowing the principles of building electrical circuits, you can independently replace the electric bell. Agree, this is a great opportunity to gain new skills and save.

But even when performing the simplest jobs with electrical installations and wires, you need to know both the basics and the small, but important nuances of installation: the choice of circuit and installation location,wire connection methods in the junction box, the electrical panel device.

We will help you to understand the stages of installation in more detail and tell you in detail how the call to the apartment is set up. And first, let's look at the types of devices and several popular schemes.

Design and types of electric bells

According to the principle of operation and design features, electrical models can be divided into 2 large categories: electromechanical and electronic. They are united by the principle of operation - the sound is heard when a button is pressed. At this moment, the contacts close and voltage is applied.

The sound in electromechanical calls is heard due to the operation of the electromagnetic coil and the interaction of the shock mechanism with the electric plate. Such models do not have adjustments, and the quality and volume of sound depend on the material and dimensions of the plate, hammer and bowl.

Electromechanical bell circuit
Electromechanical bell design. The traditional monotonous sound is heard at the moment when the hammer begins to hit the bowl. Thanks to the device of the bowl, the sound is loud and loud

Electronic products are distinguished by internal filling. Instead of interacting metal parts, electronics and a loudspeaker are located inside the box. The advantage is that you can adjust the sound volume, and for some models - choose a melody.

Electronic models, in turn, are divided into 2 groups:

  • Wiredin which all parts are connected by wires.Pros: clear design, easy installation, reliability. Cons: depend on the supply of electricity, require drilling and gating walls.
  • Wirelessgiving signals by radio waves. They work on batteries or accumulators, less often - from the network. Pluses: do not depend on connection to the power supply network, the button is protected from dust and moisture, simple installation. Cons: limited distance between the blocks, regular battery replacement.

There are still video calls with a camera, but you need to talk about their design, installation method and principle of operation separately. We will focus on current electronic models, which are present in large numbers on the domestic market.

Connection Diagram Overview

The volume of preparatory and installation work depends on the choice of the scheme. The scheme itself is selected taking into account several criteria: the type and number of devices, the need to connect to automation, the signal transmission method. Consider the most common wired options.

# 1 - Connection diagram of the old model

The connection sequence of the old model with a "bell" or "bowl" may come in handy if you started a change in wiring, but do not want to change the device itself.

The circuit is simple and clear: both network conductors, zero and phase, are directed to the 2 terminals or wires of the bell, but the phase is pre-wired into the button.

Connection diagram of the electromechanical model
The distribution box connects three wires: one comes from the bell, the second from the button, the third from the circuit breaker, which is installed in the electrical panel, in the apartment or on the landing

The cable serving the button and coming from the junction box is laid through a hole in the wall, most often near the front door.

Previously, the construction company was responsible for the installation of the call, and the laying of networks was originally designed. Now new houses are often rented out with imperfections, so you have to ditch the walls yourself and make holes in the wall.

Some wireless models are easier to connect - they do not need to be integrated into a common network, as the power comes from the outlet. In this case, you will have to find or install an additional outlet for a call.

Loads of the circuit are small and short-term, therefore, thin copper wires 2 * 1.5 or 3 * 1.5 can be used. Small cross-section aluminum cables are not allowed.

# 2 - One or two calls on 2 buttons

In some houses, the layout of common areas is such that a vestibule is formed for 2-3 apartments, that is, another door appears on the guest's path. So that you can call the owner of one of the apartments or any tenant, the call is installed on the door of the apartment and on the common entrance.

Two button circuit for one call
To split the network into two buttons, an additional 2-wire cable and parallel connection are used. As a result, you do not need to set 2 rings - the same one will ring when you press any button

A scheme may also be useful in which 2 buttons are attached to two calls, and when either button is pressed, both devices work.

Scheme of connecting two calls to two buttons
Distinctive features of the circuit: the use of a 3-core cable coming from the switch box to the buttons, and the connection of the 2nd call with a separate wire

The phase coming from the junction box is connected by a jumper with the contacts of the buttons, and the connecting wires are sent separately - from each button to its call. For the correct application of the button is better to sign.

# 3 - Connection diagrams of modern models

Apartments in old houses were equipped with wiring using the TN-C system, now TN-S / TN-C-S is used.

Modern networks have an additional PE conductor that provides grounding. All conductors of the "ground" type connected to metal cases are connected in a junction box and grounded on the shield.

Electronic model connection diagram
The instructions for the product indicate which wires should be used when connecting. If grounding is required, a 3-wire cable is needed. Earth conductor is marked in yellow and green.

If the button is metal, it also needs grounding.

For plastic products, a simpler circuit is suitable - with 2 contacts. This is the most popular option.

But there are models with 4 terminals. They should not be confused, as they simply simplify wiring.

Four-terminal bell connection diagram
When installing a bell with 4 terminals, a junction box is not needed. Its function is performed by the ringer case: wires coming from the button are connected to the 2 terminals; to the other 2, wires coming from the power line

If there is a transformer in the kit with the call, then a different connection scheme is used.

Transformer Call Diagram
Calling circuit with safe low voltage control. The button is powered with a voltage of 12-24 V, and the conductors are connected in a separate distribution box

In the electrical panel, a transformer for a call is mounted, resembling a regular automatic machine in size. From it, a cable with a low voltage is sent to the distribution box.

Both wires are connected to the call: both with a low voltage, and power at 220 V, coming from the unit with a device that makes a sound.

There are other connection schemes - we advise you to take accurate information only from technical documentation and installation instructions.

Step-by-step installation instructions

The installation of the button and the indoor unit is carried out according to the instructions, which are necessarily included in the new products. We offer general instructions suitable for a standard wired model consisting of 2 main working blocks - a button and the bell itself.

Step 1 - Materials and Tools

Tools are better prepared immediately so as not to be distracted once again during operation. If you plan to ditch the walls, a wall cutter, punch or drill will come in handy. If necessary, they can be borrowed from friends or rented. Other devices and accessories are not so bulky.

Wall chaser for cutting grooves in the wall
“Dirty” work is best done together with the repair of the corridor or hallway, then the wires will be securely “sewn” into the plaster and the appearance of the walls will not suffer as a result

A set of tools and materials for installing a call:

  • construction knife;
  • Screwdriver Set;
  • indicator screwdriver;
  • screws and a screwdriver;
  • insulating tape;
  • terminals.

Wire connection can be performed not only terminals - they are simply faster and more convenient. Some still use soldering, then a soldering iron is required.

We do not recommend doing twisting without soldering - this is an unreliable and dangerous way to connect the cores.

Cable channel for masking wires
For external installation of cables, in which you do not have to ditch the walls, protective cable channels are useful. This is an option for halls with a fresh repair.

If there is no cable in the kit along with the call, you need to buy it. Before buying, look at the installation diagram and specify which cable required: 2- or 3-core.

Step 2 - preparatory work

If you are installing a wireless model, no training is needed. It is required when it is necessary to pave the way for the wires connecting the circuit elements.

Perforator for drilling holes in the wall
The hardest thing to do is to drill a hole and recess grooves in a concrete wall. To do this, make a marking, and then use a special power tool: a chaser, a puncher, a percussion drill

The hole is usually drilled near the front door. Sometimes it is carefully masked with platbands. The wires for the button are brought out, approximately at a height of 150-160 cm from the floor, for the bell case - to the place of installation. Usually this is the area under the ceiling above the door or slightly to the side of it.

If you need to connect to the electrical panel, consider the path to the ground bus. If the bell has an adapter with a plug, select the mounting location for the case so that it looks organically on the wall.

The wires are laid in the made strobes, covered with plaster on top. To make the walls and the bell housing look neat, we recommend that you finish the walls only after the installation of the fasteners.

Step 3 - installing the ringer case

First, we connect the conductors, and then install the case on the bracket or holder. Sometimes it’s just 1-2 screws for “ears”.

Switchboard with circuit breakers
Before connecting, we remove the voltage from the circuit involved - turn off the circuit breaker in the electrical panel and warn others not to turn it on

We stick out the wires protruding from the wall, according to the diagram, into the housing through a special hole or unscrew the cover. Find the terminals, start veins stripped of insulationtwist.

Often in expensive or imported products, self-clamping terminals are installed, the wires in which are fixed with one click.

Electric bell on the wall
We close the lid, "push" the case onto the screws, screws or bolts. If a special bracket is pre-installed - just fix it on the latch

There are products whose body needs to be screwed to the bar. Then first we screw in the screws, and only then close the lid. As a result of proper installation, only the front decorative panel is visible, the fasteners are invisible.

Step 4 - Installing the Button

The order of installation of the button and the indoor unit does not matter, you can first connect the button, and then the case. The standard installation height is 150-160 cm, but sometimes, for objective reasons, it is fixed a little lower. It is better to retreat from the jamb 10-15 cm.

Electric door button near the door
First, wires are also precisely inserted into the case, they are connected to the terminals, then the cover is latched and the button case is fixed on the wall

If in the kit you found a double-sided tape - it is provided for attaching the button to the wall. But it is much more reliable if it is screwed onto screws or self-tapping screws.

After installing all the elements on the dashboard, turn on the machine and check the operation of the call. If possible, adjust the volume.

Conclusions and useful video on the topic

Detailed instruction from the Russian manufacturer of cable products:

Self-installation option:

With the advent of intercoms and mobile phones, the need for a mandatory doorbell installation has disappeared. But it still remains a useful device that makes life much easier - if, for example, there is no intercom in your doorway.

Self-assembly is simple and a good training for further, more serious practices in the field of power supply of your own housing. But when working with electricity, do not forget about safety - your own and those around you.

If you are familiar with setting up a call in an apartment or house, we invite you to share your personal experience. You may have encountered installation difficulties, let's discuss them with our readers. Go to the comments, ask questions to our experts and other visitors to the site.

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