Wiring diagram in the apartment: electrical wiring for different rooms

Amir Gumarov
Checked by a specialist: Amir Gumarov
Author: Tatyana Zakharova
Last update: March 2020

An obligatory part of the repair work in the apartment is the replacement or installation of electrical cables, junction boxes, electrical panels. A correctly selected wiring diagram will protect the housing from accidents and unforeseen situations.

We will tell you what you need to provide for when replacing or laying electrics yourself. Here you will learn how to make a diagram and distribute electrical points in one-room, two- and three-room apartments. Based on our recommendations, you can provide yourself with a faultlessly functioning energy network.

Distinctive features of modern wiring

Modern household technologies at the end of the 20th century made a tangible breakthrough. In addition to TVs, computers, security and video surveillance systems, powerful household appliances, and wireless communications appeared in homes. In this regard, the wiring of electric cables has become much more complicated, although the principles of the device have not changed.

Difficulties begin from the very first stage - design. In order to correctly draw up the wiring diagram in the apartment, you need to know in advance the approximate power of household electrical appliances, their location. At the same time, you need to think through a lighting system in all rooms.

Computer network wiring
If you do not take into account the laying of the computer cable and the installation of the router for the home network, in the future you will get wires hanging on the wall or stretched along the floor. In the best case, they can be hidden in the baseboard or sewn into boxes

In addition to a large number of new devices, another difference appeared: along with the power network, a low-current system is always present, traditionally including telephone and television wires, as well as computer, security, acoustic equipment and an intercom.

These two systems (power and low current) cannot be separated, since all devices are powered by 220 V.

Low-current system wiring diagram
The layout of the low-voltage system in the apartment. It includes three networks: computer, telephone and television. Each network has its own cable and equipment.

The number of instruments and cables operated simultaneously has changed. If earlier it was enough to install one chandelier in the hall, now many people use a lighting system that includes, in addition to the chandelier, spotlights and lights.

An increase in power must be added to the increase in the number of equipment - for this reason, the old cables are no longer suitable, and the size of the electrical distribution panel has grown significantly.

Why do I need a wiring diagram?

It turns out that the device of modern wiring of electricians in an apartment is a real art, which only a professional electrician can cope with.

If you don’t want to constantly change the wall decoration in order to mask the cables appearing here and there, we recommend that you make a drawing with the designation of all significant objects related to electricity: sockets, switches, electrical panels, before repairing an apartment or building a house RCDlighting fixtures.

Wiring diagram in a one-room apartment
An example of a scheme that a homeowner can sketch. Attention is paid to the designation of the locations of all electric points, starting from the electrical panel and ending with sockets

Based on the requirements or wishes of the homeowner, an electrician draws up a schematic diagram of the electrical wiring in the apartment. Its task is to divide the cables into groups in order to correctly distribute the load, to think through a control and protection system and, ultimately, to do everything to guarantee safety and comfort.

What you must take into account when drawing up a diagram, drawing, work plan necessary for a competent electrical wiring?

Consider the power grid in terms of constituent parts:

  • Automatic protection devicesinstalled in an electrical panel. The functioning of all home equipment and the safety of users depend on their quality and proper installation.
  • Cable wire with the right section and good insulation.
  • Sockets and switches with quality contacts, secure enclosures.

In private homes, an obligatory element is an introductory machine and a power cable from it to the shield. Via circuit breaker regulate the power consumption and, if necessary, turn off all the electricity in the house.

An approximate wiring diagram in a private house
An approximate wiring diagram in a private house. The main attention should be paid to the distribution of capacities across circuit breakers and the protection of each dedicated line

An electric meter is usually installed at the entrance, a cut after the introductory machine.

Division of wiring into groups (lines)

It is much easier to manage and control the power grid if it is divided into several lines. In the event of a malfunction or emergency, you can turn off one group, while the rest will function normally.

The option of dividing into 4 groups:

Further about each electrogroup in more detail.

Stationary household appliances

Large household appliances are usually located in the kitchen or bathroom area.

The layout of the outlets in the kitchen
The layout of the outlets in the kitchen. Rules: directly behind the dishwasher and washing machine, sockets are not allowed; it is better to use waterproof models (+)

Separate connection of the kitchen area is necessary for repairs. If one of the devices breaks down, a replacement is required. In order not to turn off the electricity in the entire apartment, it is enough to turn off one protection device, which is responsible for stationary equipment.

Oven Repair
Unfortunately, even expensive household appliances fail from time to time. Repair is sometimes delayed for several hours. A separate power group will help maintain a comfortable stay in the kitchen and in other rooms

What prevents you from simply disconnecting the broken device from the network by pulling the plug from the outlet? The fact is that with built-in equipment, the points of connection to the mains are located in hard-to-reach places.

In addition, a malfunction can occur not in the device itself, but in the wiring disguised in the wall. In this case, moving the lever of the circuit breaker is much easier.

Leased line for the kitchen

The kitchen line is traditionally the busiest. About 5-6 units are constantly connected to the network, even if they are not involved. This applies to the refrigerator, oven, hob, dishwasher, range hood, microwave, toaster. Many people use a kitchen electric grill, a meat grinder, a bread machine, a slow cooker, etc.

Wiring diagram in the kitchen
The electrical wiring diagram for the kitchen, divided into 4 groups. Separate automatic machines are installed in the switchboard for powerful household equipment

In this case, a separate powerful electric cable will simply make it possible to use several devices at once.

If lighting devices or a water heater “hang” on the general wiring, then when you turn on the next device, the network simply will not stand up and an automatic shutdown will work.

Detailed analysis of schemes and location options kitchen outlets given in the article, which we recommend to read.

One or more lighting groups?

Given the number of lighting fixtures in each room, one or more lines can be made. If the hall has one six-arm chandelier, and the bedroom has low-power overhead lighting and two sconces, then all the devices can be combined in one line.

However, if the living room resembles a hall for a disco - with chandeliers, spotlights, ceiling and wall lights - then only for it should organize a separate group.

Room layout
Wiring diagram for spot or halogen 220 V luminaires for one room, for example, for a kitchen, children's room or hallway

If, in addition to the luminaires, transformers or power supplies are included in the network of one room, then it is also recommended to connect it to a separate protection device.

Humid rooms

Elevated requirements apply to electrical appliances and cable in the bathroom, since the close proximity of water is a risk. In order for the power grid to be safe and functional, a number of rules must be taken into account when drawing up the circuit and installing the wiring:

The requirements also apply to the choice of accessories that you will have to use regularly - sockets and switches. Suppose that the degree of protection of the sockets should be at least IP 44, and it is even better to purchase special devices with a splash-proof cover.

It is recommended to abandon 220 V luminaires in favor of 12 V analogs.

The choice of cable for the bathroom
A three-wire copper wire is quite suitable for installing sockets in the bathroom, but you should pay attention to the cross-section: for connecting ordinary devices, it must be at least 2.5 mm², for powerful electrical equipment - 4 mm². Domestic option - VVGng

If grounding is not provided for in the old housing in the apartment panel, then not only in the bathroom, but throughout the apartment, the electrical wiring will have to be replaced with a three-wire one.

With selection rules waterproof sockets For the arrangement of bathrooms and toilets, we suggest that you familiarize yourself with the article on these issues.

Overview of wiring diagrams for residential premises

Let's move on to specific schemes that can be applied in the planning process of wiring in your own room. When drawing up the drawing, it is important to take into account the arrangement and power of stationary equipment, the conditions for using electrical appliances, and the convenient placement of sockets and switches for use.

Option # 1: studio or studio

A distinctive feature of one-room housing is the minimum, in comparison with other options, the number of electrical appliances, respectively, a smaller number of connected lines is formed. But this does not mean that for the kitchen or the bathroom you do not need to plan separate groups - it is better to preserve the general principles.

Variant of the wiring diagram for a 1-room apartment
A variant of the wiring diagram for a 1-room apartment, taking into account the fact that in each room it is planned to install one lighting device

Consider what should definitely be done when drawing up an electrical wiring diagram in a one-room apartment:

  • choose the main parameters of the electric network;
  • calculate the load, pick up the cable and RCD;
  • select a connection scheme (1 or several groups).

Having solved these issues, drawing up a diagram will be much easier.

Electric network parameters

It is difficult to decide in advance which devices will be installed in the entire apartment, however, at least an approximate number of them is necessary in order to correctly calculate the total power.

It is important to determine their location, as the use of extension cords and filters in the future will create additional problems for the network and ruin the interior design.

Rules for installing sockets and switches
When choosing places for mounting sockets and switches, we recall the requirements of the PUE: the recommended height from the floor for installing sockets is 0.3-1.8 m, switches - 0.6-0.9 m. We focus on ease of use

It is also important to choose the method of laying cables - open or closed. Open way involves laying wires over decorative walls. In this case, most often the wiring is covered with plastic boxes, but in some cases left in sight.

Installation of open wiring
Installation of wires in an open form is even welcome if the interior design is made in the style of a loft or country: stylized vintage sockets and visible wires are part of the decoration

Benefits of open wiring:

  • possibility of installation after or during repair work;
  • quick installation;
  • You can connect another line at any time.

When installing hidden wiring, you will have to ditch the walls so that all wires are masked under the finish. Easier with pendant structures: the hoses for the lighting system can be hidden above the tension coating or plasterboard box.

Hidden wiring has a few pluses, but they are more significant:

  • not so stringent requirements are imposed on the parameters and installation conditions;
  • tolerances to nominally allowed currents increase;
  • interior integrity is maintained.

Traditionally, in new apartments, they use hidden wiring, and use the open method only as an exception (for example, when laying a new line in an already renovated apartment).

Electricity load calculation

In order to calculate the total load of electrical appliances, it is necessary to know the rated power of the electrical receivers, the rated current and the voltage of the mains. There are many calculation formulas, but it is better to use ready-made tables.

Power table
Table of power consumption of the most common household electrical appliances that are commonly used by apartment residents. The values ​​are averaged, so for an accurate calculation it is necessary to know the characteristics of the devices (+)

We recommend that you contact an engineer or use a computer program to calculate the exact load, because it depends on the result cable selection.

Cable options
When choosing a cable cross-section, it is necessary to take into account not only the wiring material (copper or aluminum), but also the laying method (open or closed), since closed wiring has less thermal conductivity, therefore, the current is also less (+)

According to the rules, if the intra-apartment networks are divided into groups, then each individual line must be equipped with a 25 A automatic machine. Therefore, when breaking down into groups, we take into account the total rated current (not more than 25 A).

There are exceptions: for example, for lighting networks, a 16 A protection device is enough, but provided that the group includes no more than 20 outlets and lamps at the same time.

Which wiring diagram is better?

For a one-room apartment, two options are possible: meals from one group and meals from several groups. The first option in modern conditions is practically not applicable, if only because to use even one powerful household appliance (for example, a washing machine), a separate line with a protection device is needed.

Such schemes may exist in the apartments of the old residential sector, which have not been repaired for many years, or in a country house where there is no powerful electrical equipment. It turns out that even for the installation of electricians in a one-room apartment, division into groups is necessary.

Group Connection
An approximate scheme of connecting electric points in groups. For the kitchen there are three whole groups serving the electric stove, small household appliances and the lighting network

This scheme is practically applicable to any type of housing, but there will be more connection points, respectively, and lines, in 2- and 3-room apartments.

Option # 2: 2-, 3-room apartment

Fundamentally, the electrical wiring does not depend on the number of rooms, but there are a number of features that need to be considered:

  • the outlet network is better divided into several groups - according to the number of rooms;
  • the lighting system also needs to be divided into rooms;
  • at least three lines should be allocated for the kitchen - for lighting devices, powerful equipment and small household appliances;
  • if the bathroom is separate, it is better to use the division into 2 groups.

Given that a large area of ​​apartments is characteristic of elite housing, security equipment is included in the wiring diagrams.

Approximate installation scheme of protective equipment
An approximate diagram of the installation of protective equipment for an apartment with two rooms. It is assumed that in addition to outlet and lighting groups, the apartment has a video surveillance system and a security alarm

If specialists are involved in the drafting and installation, then you should have a diagram at the end of the work - in case of repair or an unforeseen situation.

Wiring diagram in a three-room apartment
Scheme of installation of sockets and lighting devices in a three-room apartment. When drawing up the wiring diagram for multi-room apartments, it is better to use several drawings, since in one it is difficult to designate all groups, including low-current

According to the developed scheme for laying electric lines and installing electric points, you can safely perform installation power networks. It is advisable to avoid changes in the planned wiring during work. However, if there is a need for them, the adjustment of the scheme must be done taking into account the above rules.

Making up wiring diagram in a private house, you must specify the input electrical equipment and cable parameters from the input group.

Conclusions and useful video on the topic

You can draw up a wiring diagram in the form of a drawing made by hand, or using a computer program. Example wiring for an apartment in a three-dimensional computer image:

Professional advice from practitioners:

Subtleties of various types of connecting sockets and switches:

To carry out the electrical network in the apartment, protecting all devices and correctly distributing the load, it is possible under one condition - if you are a qualified electrician.

It is impossible to work with a switchboard without special permission. Consequently, you can change the outlet or connect the hood yourself, and more serious work is better to delegate to specialists.

Want to share your personal experience in drawing up a scheme for the modernization or repair of power lines in an apartment? Have questions or valuable suggestions? Please write comments in the block below.

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Visitors Comments
  1. I would recommend not only in private homes to pay special attention to the creation of lines with different loads, but also to do this in apartments. The fact is that now, in addition to conventional household appliances, many also use additional electric water heaters, which ordinary wiring will quickly fail. Even if such equipment is not used now, it is better to foresee this in the future.

  2. Alexander

    Three months ago we drove into a new odnushka. In the very first week we encountered such a problem - the bathroom is cut down if a washing machine and, for example, a hairdryer are working. As a result, I myself did not dare to disassemble, they called an electrician. They made a normal selection for the bathroom. Why at the same time the kitchen with a bunch of appliances was not cut off - it is not clear, apparently they mounted it as it should. In the bathroom, the lamp also burned out very often.

    • Novel

      It was necessary to put the automatic machine on the bathroom more strongly, since one bath was cut down, then the “dedicated line”, and so it is, just put a weak automatic machine.

    • Expert
      Amir Gumarov

      Good afternoon, Alexander.

      You did not provide the circuit details, therefore I will assume that the kitchen was supplied with electricity by a special line, and the installers selected the protection correctly - the rated current of the circuit breaker is implied.Such isolation of the kitchen electrical network is provided for in paragraph 3.26 of Instruction No. I 1.00-12, which regulates the installation of electrical wiring.

      The power supply to the bathroom bypassed regulatory documents - this applies only to the power supply circuit of electrical equipment. In other words, a dedicated line is not required. However, SP 256.1325800.2016, which establishes the design rules for apartments, requires protecting the 30 mA RCD line of the bathroom if there are sockets in the room. Under the RCD, it is logical to lay the selected line. A combined screenshot of the mentioned paragraphs of the documents - attached.

      The bathroom was cut down, I think, by an improperly selected machine. The washing machine could “burn” the light bulb, distorting the sinusoid voltage with harmonics.

      Attached photos:
    • Sergei

      With such an event, there are a lot of options and without proper knowledge, doing nothing on your own. For reasons:

      1. Incorrectly selected machine (less cash than required).
      2. The RCD circuit breaker (current loss circuit breaker) is not correctly selected.
      3. A malfunction of one of the devices (current could go).
      4. Not bona fide wiring (there could be a loss in the wires).

      In such cases, it is necessary to check, starting with what means of protection are used, a regular automatic machine, an RCD or a differential automatic circuit breaker (not to be confused with an RCD) and proceeding from this, check further. As a rule, one line is enough for a bathroom - light, washing machine (temporary load), sockets (temporary load).

  3. Pavel

    It wasn’t necessary, Roman. The wash should go in a separate line.

  4. Valery

    Guided by your recommendations and using your picture, I tried to draw up my diagram for a one-room apartment. Can you comment on my mistakes and how to simplify the scheme while maintaining acceptable security.

    Attached photos: