Electrical safety posters: types of plates and graphic signs + application
Work with electrical installations requires responsibility, increased attention, the implementation of certain rules set forth in the regulatory documentation. Separate items are devoted to protective equipment, among which are electrical safety posters. What are they, what categories are they divided into and what are they for?
You will learn all about posters that prescribe and prohibit activities during the repair of equipment or wiring from the article we proposed. We will tell you what types of posters are divided into, what form they have. We have listed and described the main and additional types of visual warnings.
The content of the article:
Posters as a means of protection
Vivid colorographic images with explanatory inscriptions or symbols are called posters or safety signs. They have a certain geometric shape: rectangular, triangular, square.
Posters are needed to alert both workers and casual people about the potential dangers posed by wiring equipment. Some posters directly prohibit the performance of certain actions, others carry an information load, others allow, prescribe to work.
The document applies to any means of protection used by organizations of various forms of ownership - both state-owned enterprises and private property, especially if the voltage in electrical installations is higher than 1000 V.
Workers involved in work in electrical installations must be provided with protective equipment, including posters, to explain how and where to use them in order to ensure the most safe working conditions. Portable signs should be part of the inventory arsenal used by visiting teams.
Posters and signs are made according to GOST. Unlike tools and clothes, they do not require marking, they do not need to be numbered or marked in any other way.
Electrical Safety Poster Groups
In total there are 13 posters and signs. According to the instructions, according to purpose, they are divided into 4 types:
- prohibiting - to prohibit switching on / off switching devices in order to eliminate the risk of voltage supply to the working area;
- warning - to warn workers that live parts are nearby and protective equipment is required;
- prescribing - for permission to work, but taking into account compliance with the requirements of TB;
- indicative - to indicate places where devices or objects are located (in particular, connected to grounding).
The second group is the largest. It includes 4 posters and 2 signs. In other categories there are no signs.
By the nature of the operation, the posters are divided into 2 groups:
- permanent (this includes signs);
All types of posters are made exclusively from electrical insulating materials, but permanent signs can be applied with spray paint or brush on metal and concrete surfaces - walls, parts of structures. Marked metal parts must be kept away from live circuits and devices.
And now in more detail about the types of posters on electrical safety.
Group # 1 - Prohibitory
The category includes four characters, united by the same purpose, rectangular shape and the use of red and white colors.
DO NOT include people working
A rectangular poster of a portable type, which is used at construction sites and at the locations of electrical installations (up to 1000 V and above) in order to protect the workplace from voltage supply.
- wires of switches and disconnectors;
- circuit breakers and automatic machines up to 1000 V;
- control buttons of the remote control.
If the circuit with a voltage of up to 1000 V does not include switching devices, the fuses are removed before starting work, and a poster is posted near the place of their installation.
DO NOT TURN ONline work
A portable poster similar in design, informing that people are working on the line, therefore voltage supply is prohibited.
The purpose is the same as that of the first poster in the group - the prohibition of actions with switching devices: buttons and power levers, drives that supply voltage to the power cable with which the installers work.
DO NOT OPEN people work
Poster informing about the prohibition of actions that result in the supply of gas or compressed air.
The poster is used in power plants and substations, in areas where electrical installations are located, so that gas or compressed air is not accidentally supplied to people performing electrical or repair work.
- air line valves;
- pipeline valves.
If you use a switch or disconnector, push the valve or turn the valve, compressed air or gas (carbon dioxide, hydrogen, etc.) can be harmful to the health of electricians.
VOLTAGE OPERATION DO NOT REMOVE
Portable poster prohibiting re-inclusion. It is relevant for high-voltage circuit breakers operating in automatic mode. If automatic line shutdown has occurred differential device or RCD, switching on is possible only after agreement with the service personnel.
The poster is hung on the control levers of the high-voltage line during the repair work involving the supply of voltage.
Group # 2 - Warning
The group includes four posters in red and white colors and two triangular signs depicting lightning (arrows).
CAUTION ELECTRICAL VOLTAGE
A bright yellow sign warns that there is a danger of electric shock, and is hung out or applied with paint at the installation sites of live lines and devices.
This is a permanent sign that can most often be found in substations and power plants.
- entrance doors of control chambers, transformers and circuit breaker chambers;
- switchboard doors with voltage up to 1000 V;
- fencing of constructions of industrial premises, workshops of enterprises, repair zones.
For populated areas - villages, towns, cities, ports, agricultural enterprises, railway stations, beaches, etc. the same sign option is used.
The sign is mounted on metal or wooden poles of high-voltage lines at a height of 2.5-3 m from the surface of the earth. If the distance between the supports is more than 100 m, as well as when crossing the road, the sign should hang on each support. If the spans are less than 100 m, then it is not hung on each support, but through one.
CAUTION ELECTRICAL VOLTAGE
Like the previous sign, warns of the risk of electric shock. The design is the same, but different in background color.
Permanent sign designed specifically for placement on reinforced concrete supports and concrete fences of outdoor switchgears.
A rectangular rectangular banner warning of the danger of electric shock.
The poster is intended for use in substations and power plants.
- temporary fencing for live devices and lines;
- fences located in the aisles;
- Permanent fencing of chambers adjacent to the working area.
In switchgears located on the street, the poster is hung on cords that serve as a fence, as well as on structures made of wood, concrete or metal, located close to live lines.
The test is life threatening
A portable poster used during testing - when high voltage is applied and there is a threat to health.
A poster is posted before testing high voltage lines. It is mounted on equipment or walling with the inscription outward.
Danger! Keep out
A portable poster, with which they warn of the risk of electric shock when lifting on a structure or device.
Typically, a poster is not hung on a structure with a staircase leading to a workplace arranged at a height, but on a neighboring one.
HAZARDOUS ELECTRIC FIELD without protective equipment is prohibited
The poster is permanent, prohibits being near an electric field without protective equipment. If you violate the requirement, there is a risk of electric shock.
The poster is intended for street electrical devices with voltages above 330 kV.
- routes by which switchgears are bypassed;
- workplaces located close to the electric field.
The prohibitory poster is hung out at a height of 1.5-2 m or on the fence, or on a specially installed pole.
Group # 3 - Prescriptive
The signs of this group do not prohibit or warn, but serve to indicate places of work. They differ in square shape and blue and white colors.
The prescription is obvious - a specific place for the work of the repair team or maintenance personnel is indicated.
A portable poster is hung out at substations and power plants to indicate jobs. If the switchgear is located on the street, the best installation location is in the passage zone behind the fence.
The prescription determines the place where you need to climb to a high workplace to avoid danger.
Mounting places - stationary stairs or other structures specially designated for safe ascent to the workplace.
Group # 4 - Index
In this group there is only one portable poster, indicating the prohibition of supplying electric current to a separate grounded section of the device or electrical installation.
The poster is relevant for power plants or substations, mounted on switches, drives and remote keys that regulate the supply of electricity to grounded areas.
In addition to standard posters, it is allowed to hang up enlarged ones if the equipment in electrical installations differs in large dimensions. The sizes are regulated by the same GOST R 12.4.026.
Other posters and signs
In addition to protective equipment from regulatory documents that are mandatory for use, there are a number of signs and posters of the "amateur" type. They are not mandatory, but are used to prohibit or permit certain actions with electrical equipment.
Some of them are informational and report on the technical characteristics of the line or electrical installation.
Others are versions of statutory posters and contain a prohibition or warning.
Some posters can be attributed to training. They are not posted at hazardous workplaces, but in utility rooms, classes, and offices as additional educational material.
Sometimes they try to attract attention, partially using the rules for poster design and adding something from themselves:
Sometimes the signs are humorous in nature. But the main thing is that they perform the main function - they warn or forbid.
There are no prohibitions on posters made in free or inaccurate design. The principle of “more is better” is applied here, since it is about preserving the health and life of people.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Options for posters and signs:
The use of protective equipment is a necessary requirement of TB, due to which people's health is preserved, the risk of electric shock is eliminated. Bright, placed in the right places posters give you the opportunity to quickly understand what you can or cannot do, where exactly to work, what exactly to do.
They should not be neglected, if only in order to preserve their own lives.
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