Wind generator for a private house: device, types, overview of the best offers
Windmills have long ceased to be an exotic novelty, now they are considered as one of the possible options for saving. The air flows above the earth's surface carry a huge amount of energy, which is currently successfully used in industrial wind turbines and small wind turbines for private use.
We will tell you how to choose the right and technically correctly install a wind generator for a private house. The article we have proposed describes the rules for assembling and operating mini power plants. Interested buyers are given recommendations for selection, given the rating of popular models.
The content of the article:
- Design and principle of operation of wind turbines
- Types of wind farms
- Feasibility of installing a wind generator
- Overview of the best brands and installations
- Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Design and principle of operation of wind turbines
Wind generators are special devices that transform the kinetic energy of the wind into electrical energy. These are independent sources of electricity, which are excellent for installation in private residential buildings, on small and medium-sized farms, and production bases.
The design of a standard mini-power plant for domestic use includes the following functional elements:
- Blades aerodynamic shape for trapping wind.
- Generator for producing alternating current.
- Controller for automatic control of a wind station. Allows you to adjust the recharging of the batteries, distributes the flow of energy between devices.
- Storage device. Special batteries for the accumulation of generated electricity.
- Inverter to bring the parameters of the generated energy to network standards.
- Mast, lifting the blades to a certain height above ground level.
Masts are different: free-standing without stretch marks, rigidly fixed and rotary on stretch marks.The latter can be lowered and raised for maintenance, as well as for repair and restoration work.
In fact, the energy from the wind farm is not directly delivered to the consumer. In the system, special devices must be connected to convert the electric current.
The controller is located in the circuit after the generator. It converts alternating current into direct current. In this form, electricity is accumulated and stored in the batteries, and then from them through the inverter, which transforms direct current into alternating current, the energy is supplied to a private power grid.
Such a scheme makes it possible to smooth out voltage instability, as well as to accumulate energy during periods of complete absence of consumption. And this, in turn, allows the use of wind generators of lower power than the total power of household electrical appliances.
Together with an autonomous wind station, it is possible to install both solar modules and fuel generators.
If several devices for generating electricity are involved at once, the circuit is supplemented with another element - a circuit breaker (ABP). It is necessary that when you turn off one source of alternative energy, another, the backup one, is launched.
As part of modern wind farms, various designs of rotors are used - rotating parts. They have their advantages and disadvantages, different efficiency and functionality. Currently, there are many developments of autonomous systems that can interact with winds of different speeds and strengths.
Types of wind farms
By type of consumers, autonomous wind generators and network installations are distinguished. The former provide power to consumers remote from the central electrical networks.
The second - can number several tens / hundreds of windmills, which form a single system and transfer energy to a common network. The power of autonomous units rarely exceeds 75 kW, while the power of network installations starts from 100 kW.
Depending on the type of construction, wind generators are distinguished:
- with vertical axis of rotation;
- with horizontal axis of rotation.
These devices are used for different operating conditions, but most often there are models with a horizontal axis. They work like ordinary weathercocks and have a similar structure. The rotor axis rotates parallel to the earth's surface.
Such units are characterized by high efficiency (about 40%), simple power control and a more affordable price, but they are also characterized by a high level of generated noise and vibration. In addition, they must be oriented towards the direction of the wind.
Wind generators with a vertical axis of rotation have a more compact design, they are less susceptible to environmental factors.
In devices of this type, the turbine is perpendicular to the plane of the Earth. Such structures are launched even from light winds and are not dependent on the direction of air flow.
However, there is a significant minus - the efficiency of such generators is only 15%. In addition, they are more expensive than models with a horizontal axis of rotation.
Models of wind generators differ among themselves not only by the location of the rotational axis, but also:
- number of blades - there are windmills with two and three blades, there are also multi-blade modifications;
- materials for the manufacture of functional parts - with sailing and rigid blades;
- screw pitch - adjustable or fixed.
Rotation of multi-blade stationary windmills begins even with a weak wind, but for the operation of two- and three-blade devices, a stronger wind is needed. At the same time, each additional blade in the structure creates greater wheel resistance, making it more difficult to achieve standard generator operating speeds.
Depending on the material of manufacture blades for wind turbine, there may be certain difficulties in the work. Sailing elements are easier to manufacture, which is why they are cheaper.
But if it is necessary to ensure reliable operation of the wind turbine for autonomous power supply, it is worth giving preference to designs with rigid blades made of metal or fiberglass reinforced.
As for the pitch of the screw, it is also not so simple. The variable step allows you to significantly expand the range of effective speeds for the operation of the wind station and this is a big plus. But at the same time, such a mechanism reduces the overall reliability of a stationary installation and significantly complicates the wind wheel, complicating the operation of the unit.
Feasibility of installing a wind generator
Small wind farms today are widely used as alternative sources of electricity, which can achieve real savings.
Such devices, as a rule, are installed in summer cottages, in areas remote from the main power supply networks. But this is not the only reason why people increasingly prefer constructions of this type.
However, not every zone is suitable for installing a wind turbine. In order for the mini-power station to fully function during the period of operation declared by the manufacturer, the climatic conditions of the area must comply with the requirements of special equipment.
The average wind speed should not be less than 4.5-5 m / s. Only in this case, the installation of a structure with a wind turbine will be economically justified.
To find approximate data on the average annual wind speed by region, you need to view a special wind map. More accurate information can be obtained using an anemometer and a device for reading signals.
The measuring system must be installed at high altitude so that nearby buildings and trees do not distort the results.
If you decide to install a mini-wind farm for your home, you should also consider the availability of free space. It should be borne in mind that the wind must absolutely “walk” along the blades, well, and without obstacles in its path to reach them from different directions.
That is why the tops of the hills are considered the ideal place to install a wind turbine, where the air masses are condensed with a corresponding increase in pressure and wind speed. Marine regions and the steppe zone are also considered suitable.
Any obstacles within a radius of 250 m will affect wind generator. To obtain maximum efficiency indicators, it is necessary to set the axis of the turbine above the level of obstacles by at least 4-5 m.
Rules for choosing equipment
The selection of a wind generator for the home should be approached responsibly.
You need to collect basic information in advance:
- Calculate the nominal and maximum amount of electricity to meet the needs of the house.
- View data on the average annual wind speed in the area of residence to determine the periods when the windmill will be inactive.
- Take into account the climatic features of the area. If severe frosts are observed in the winter season, the installation of a wind station will not justify itself.
- Find out the intensity of the generated noise during the operation of wind generators.
- Compare the technical specifications of devices from different manufacturers.
The selection of components of functional elements for a wind power installation is carried out according to the nominal value of power. In this case, the nominal wind speed plays a role - the values at which the wind generator generates a calculated amount of electric energy.
It is also necessary to focus on the fact that the power of a wind generator depends on the diameter of the wheel formed by the blades. If you increase the size by 2 times, the windmill at the same wind speed will produce 4 times more electricity.
Battery capacity is also important. In case of calm, they should have enough energy to provide a home.
Low-power models of wind generators with light, low masts can be installed independently. The central support must be mounted on a reinforced concrete foundation. For lateral stability of the structure, 3-4 stretch marks are used.
Approximate prices and payback of wind generators
The popularity of wind turbines is growing every day. It is advantageous for them to equip large and expensive cottages, the content of which requires a lot of electric energy.
It is advisable to install windmills in populated areas where there is no centralized power supply or electricity is supplied intermittently.
It is in such cases that wind generators come to the rescue, the use of which has several advantages:
- transformation of energy of air currents into free electricity;
- environmental safety of wind turbines;
- lack of raw materials and waste in the production of electricity;
- minimal wear of functional parts;
- long term of operation - 25-30 years;
- there is no need to constantly monitor the operation of the wind farm.
The disadvantages include the variability and unpredictability of wind power. To minimize losses, you need to duplicate the source or install an additional buffer for energy storage. Also, a spinning wind wheel poses a potential threat to flying birds.
Another significant minus of wind turbines for domestic use is the high cost. These bulky designs are made from expensive materials, come with a controller, batteries, inverter installation and mast.
It should be noted that domestic wind generators from Russian manufacturers, as well as high-quality wind turbines manufactured in China, are much cheaper than European counterparts. The cost of domestic wind turbines with a vertical axis with a rated power of up to 2 kW varies in the range of $ 1300-2500.
But at this price, the complete set includes only a generator with blades. The rest of the equipment will have to be purchased separately or do it yourself. Complete plants are about 40-50% more expensive.
The price of wind stations for home use with power from 3 kW to 7 kW is much higher. Such generators with related equipment will cost the buyer $ 5000-12,000.
And even when there are interruptions in the supply of network electricity, it is not always advisable to install a wind generator. It is easier and cheaper to install an uninterruptible power system based on industrial batteries in combination with a UPS.
It makes sense to mount a wind power installation in places where access to a centralized power supply is completely absent. The payback period in this case is 25 years.
Before purchasing components for assembling and installing a wind power generator, it is advisable to calculations by formulasgiven in our recommended article. Here you will find the procedure and rules for performing calculations.
Overview of the best brands and installations
On the Russian market of wind generators, both reliable relatively inexpensive devices of domestic brands and various models of wind turbines from foreign manufacturers are presented in terms of functionality. To determine the choice of installation for the home, you need to compare the characteristics of different units.
No. 1 - wind turbines Condor Home (Russia)
A series of windmills for home use includes devices with a capacity of 0.5-5 kW. They can serve as the main source of electricity or additional. Condor Home stations are adapted for operation at low temperatures, capable of producing energy even in light winds.
Depending on the model, the generator housing is made of plastic or cast aluminum, the blades are made of fiberglass. There is an effective dual braking system. The mast is compound, on extensions, has a height of 8-12 m. To install these units, you need a pile or concrete foundation.
The basic equipment includes a mast and extensions, a generator, a rotor and blades, a charge controller, and fasteners.
No. 2 - mini-power plants Falcon Euro (Russia)
They are high-tech vertical-axis wind generators with a capacity of 1-15 kW. They are used for main / backup power supply of consumers remote from power lines. They can be used as part of a complex with solar panels and a fuel generator.
Windmills are equipped with powerful neodymium magnets. The starting wind speed to start the installation is 1.5 m / s, the nominal speed is 11 m / s. An installed aerodynamic brake helps to limit wheel speed. The declared service life from the manufacturer is 20 years, the factory warranty for mini-power plants is 36 months.
The Falcon Euro basic set includes several functional elements: a wind wheel, a generator and a controller, a mast, embedded parts. Inverter installation and batteries are selected separately.
No. 3 - Sokol Air Vertical wind turbines (Russia)
Small wind power plants of this brand can provide electricity to both small cottages and medium-sized enterprises. For domestic use, SAV devices with a power of 0.5-15 kW are available.
They are characterized by high efficiency in light winds, operate smoothly at low and high temperatures in the range from -50 ° C to +50 ° C, are characterized by low noise and resistance to external influences.
Power generation by Sokol Air Vertical units is independent of wind direction. Vertical-axis units operate automatically without maintenance personnel. The design provides an electromagnetic and aerodynamic braking system to limit the speed of the wind wheel.
The blades are made of reinforced polyester or aviation aluminum (depending on the model), have a self-unwinding profile. The generator is a multi-pole three-phase excitation from permanent magnets.
The basic equipment of a wind power plant includes: a wind turbine with a battery charge controller, a mast with extensions, a mounting kit. The inverter and batteries are selected according to the technical specifications separately.
No. 4 - wind generators Energy Wind (Russia)
Customers are available with single and three-blade models of products of universal application with a capacity of 1-10 kW. These windmills are great for creating projects to provide electricity to private houses and cottages.
The Energy Wind units are based on robust reinforced fiberglass blades painted with auto enamel and a reliable airflow removal system. These units with a horizontal axis of rotation work stably at temperatures from -40 to +40 degrees Celsius.
The minimum operating wind speed is 2 m / s, for some blade positions 3 m / s, the recommended mast height is 8-20 m. The average life of the Russian brand’s installations is 25 years, the official warranty from the manufacturer is 3 years.
The basic equipment of the installations includes a permanent magnet electric generator with a mount to the mast and a rotary mechanism, blades, a set of fasteners for assembling a wind turbine. The mast, as well as the controller, inverter and batteries for energy storage, must be purchased separately.
No. 5 - Altek EW windmills (China)
Type of wind turbines - with a horizontal axis of rotation. Devices with a rated power of 1 kW to 10 kW are excellent for solving the problems of power supply of suburban residential buildings and cottages.
The protective casing of Altek EW windmills is made of aluminum alloy, which greatly simplifies the design. Functional metal parts of the generator are coated with silicon for heat resistance.
The blades are made of fiber reinforced plastic. Starting wind speed for launching household units of the Chinese brand is 2.5 m / s, nominal speed - 12 m / s.
The basic equipment includes blades, a generator and a controller. The remaining functional elements for the windmill must be purchased.
If the cost of a factory-made kit seems unnecessarily high, it makes sense to build do-it-yourself wind generator. The article recommended by us describes the manufacture of a unit useful in the household from a washing machine.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Prospects for the use of wind power plants:
The principle of operation of modern wind turbines. How wind energy is converted into electricity:
Even today, the use of wind generators requires constant development. The possibilities and long-term prospects of this alternative way of generating electricity are promising.However, certain measures are needed both from the side of equipment manufacturers and from the administrations of settlements.
The installation of small wind generators for private households will not completely solve the problem of energy supply in the regions. But for individual owners of sites, this option may be a way out.
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